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Varanasi District Uttar Pradesh

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History of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh


The city of Varanasi has been denoted by different names at different times in different contexts. Of course, the two names Kashi and Varanasi are the most common and were in use in early antiquity. The word Kashi means ‘concentration of cosmic light’. Kashi is the oldest name and was first used in the Atharva Veda (V.22.4), a ca.15th century BCE text: “Kashi shines and illumines the universe. Kashi makes moksha (liberation) dawn on everybody by giving wisdom”. In the period of the Mahabharata Kashi refers to the sacred city and its territory, which is comparable to the present area of Kashi Kshetra delineated by the Pancakroshi Yatra circuit. The name Varanasi refers to the capital city of the historical past, lying along the western bank of the Ganga river. The city lying between the Varana river in north and the Asi stream in south is known as Varanasi (Varana + Asi). According to a myth of the 15th century, the two rivers were created by the gods and placed in position to guard against the entrance of evil. In the early Puranas Varana river is called Varanavati or Varanasi, and the old city got its name as it was settled along the river. The Buddhist literature like the Jatakas frequently referred to Varanasi as Banarasi or Banaras. This is in fact a Pali version that became more popular and is still frequently used.

According to the puranic literature Lord Shiva said “Because I never forsake it, nor let it go, this great place is therefore known as Avimukta (‘never forsaken’)”. This refers to the myth that the city was never abandoned, even in the cosmic dissolution and additionally suggests that the spirit of city itself is the bestower of liberation to everybody, irrespective of caste, creed, hierarchy or class. The Kashi Rahasya (14.39) mentions that Shiva himself explains: “My lingas are everywhere there, like little sprouts arisen out of sheer bliss”, called the Forest of Bliss (Anandavana). The remnants of the five old forests are now preserved as the names of the neighbourhoods. The whole of Kashi is a cremation ground (Mahasmashana). Shiva is the controller and divinity of the cremation place. The Skanda Purana (IV.30.103-104) explains the word as follows: “Maha’, the great, ‘sma’ means a corpse, and ‘shana’ means final rest; when the dissolution of the universe comes, even the great beings lie here as corpses and therefore this place is called Mahasmashana”. People from different parts of India came here to die with a view to receiving liberation from the transmigration. Here death is a festival and auspicious.
The spiritual magnetism of Varanasi had attracted the Buddha here in the 6th century BCE to ‘Turn the Wheel of Law’. By the turn of 3rd century BCE, the great Buddhist king Ashoka had built a monastery township that flourished till 11th century CE. Now, the restored Sarnath has become a place of pilgrimage for Buddhists, and a place of spiritual tourism for others. The sense and spirit of holiness embedded in Varanasi has attracted people from various sects and religions like Vaishnavites, Shaivites, Tantrics, Buddhists, Jains, and even Muslim Sufis. In Varanasi alone, there are over 3000 Hindu shrines and temples, about 1400 Muslim shrines and mosques, 12 churches, 3 Jain temples, 9 Buddhist temples, 3 Sikh temples (Gurudvaras) and several other sacred sites and places. This is the only place in the world where such a huge number of Hindu and Muslim sacred places co-exist. The city is also known as the “City of Good Death & Liberation” and the place where ancestral souls could gain final release.

Ancient History
The city of Varanasi is archaeologically proven to have been continuously inhabited by humans since ca 800 BCE and is therefore described as one of the ancient most continuously living cities in the world. The leading prophet of Jainism, Parshvanatha, was born in Varanasi in the 8th century BCE. Later, Mahavira (599-527 BCE), the last in the line of Jain prophets (or Thirthankara-s as they are called) also made his imprint on the cultural arena of the city.
The ancient city of Varanasi (popularly called Kashi) was spread between the Varana and the Gomati, the latter meeting the Ganga ca 20km north. The Indian epic Mahabharata has a passing reference to the city, but the Jataka tales of Buddhism, written after the Mahabharata, record vivid descriptions of the city. This is further supported by the literary description given in the Shatapatha Brahamana, dated ca 8th century BCE, which mentions the rich pastoral life and habitation in the northern part, the Rajghat area, of the city. Because of frequent use of clay and mud for building, human habitations were least resistant to the flooding of the river and as such physical and material evidence of earlier occupation appears to have vanished. Such evidence was unearthed at Kamauli village, lying 4km northeast from Rajghat across the Varana river. Here microlithic tools associated with a kind of Red Ware, datable to the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE were obtained underneath the sterile deposits of about 4m, just below the Sunga levels (200 BCE to the beginning of Christian era; Fig. 2).

By the 4th century BCE, the Mauryan dynasty was ruling the city of Kashi. Ashoka (272-242 BCE), the great Mauryan king, had declared Buddhism a state religion and visited Sarnath. Under his patronage, a Buddhist township developed here with many monasteries, stupas and shrines. After the downfall of Mauryas, the prosperity of the city too fell into darkness until the rule of Kushana in the 1st century CE. A number of clay seals discovered at the Rajghat mounds testify to the prosperity of the township. The archaeological laonet of the houses, lanes and drainage channels shows a developed pattern of planning, as is visible even today in the old centre of the city. The city of Varanasi was rich in art, from the Kushana to the beginning of Gupta period, as exemplified by the images of Bodhisattvas, Yakshas, and Nagas. The Gupta period (ca 320-550 CE) was a period of great religious vitality and transformations. It is known as India's Golden Age. Architectural fragments of this period are scattered in and around the city. The clay seals from this period give evidence of business, educational institutions and the importance of forests.

Varanasi finally was established and recognised as a great sacred place (tirtha). During the first half of the 7th century the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Hsuan-tsang arrived in the city and described it as thickly populated, prospering and an important seat of learning. He mentions twenty important temples, and one of the Shiva lingas was about 30m high covered with copper plate. This in fact, was the Mauryan pillar, the fragment of which, called the Lat Bhairava, is presently only 1.5m tall. The arrival and preaching of Adya Sankaracharya in 8th century mark the revival of the Brahmanical thought, which finally uprooted Buddhism from this soil.

Medieval Period
In the early medieval period, Varanasi had been passed from one ruler to another --- from Maukharis of Kannauj to Gurjara Pratiharas (9th century). Finally in the early 11th century it went under Gangeyadeva, king of Kannauj. The greatest of the Gahadavalas, Govindachandra (1114-1154) is described by historians of the period as the greatest king and praised as an incarnation of Vishnu, who was commissioned to protect Vishnu's favourite abode, the city of Varanasi. He had defeated the Muslim invaders two times during 1114-1118, and patronised the Hindu religion. Queen Kumar Devi, wife of Govindachandra, came of a Vajrayani (Tantric) Buddhist family. She restored several buildings at Sarnath and built a new vihara (monastery) there. His chief minister, Lakshmidhara is remembered as a great compiler of the most reputable and the most extensive digest of literature on dharma, composed in 14 volumes, known as the Krityakalpataru, "The Magical Wishing Tree of Rituals". In one of its volumes, he narrates the scriptural references to over 350 shrines in Kashi and described his theory of Hindu tirtha, covering both sides of interiorisation (archetype and body symbolism) and exteriorisation (spatial affinity and orientation).

Jayachandra, the grand son of Govindachandra, was a rival against Chahamans king Prithaviraja. Taking advantage of their internal conflict, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, slave-general of Muhammad Ghori, defeated Jayachandra in 1194 and beheaded him. His army sacked and looted the city, destroying nearly one thousand temples in Varanasi City alone and raised mosques on their foundation using the debris of the temples. The glorious century of the Govindachandra ended in catastrophe. The second invasion by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1197-98 that records the deafeat of King Harishachandra, son of Jayachandra, marks the end of the glorious of the Gahadavalas.

Late Medieval
In 1206 Aibak became the emperor at Delhi and reigned till 1210. The Delhi Sultanate was thus established. Duirng Muhammad Ghori's attack, temples were destroyed again in 1300s under Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388). In the 1400s, the city came under the rule of Sharqi kings of Jaunpur, and temples were again destroyed, and their blocks hauled away for the construction of a mosque in Jaunpur. During the moments of calm, the Hindus rebuilt temples and lingas but they were again destroyed by the next wave of invaders. After the passage of time, the city came under the rule of Lodis (1451-1526), who seized power from the Sharqis, and again a major part of the city got destroyed by Sikander Lodi. A great sigh of relief was surely heaved in the late 16th century when Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) granted more religious freedom. The Rajputs Man Singh and Todarmal, the two senior ministers in the court of Akbar, participated actively in repairing, rebuilding and in new construction of temples and Varanasi ghats during this part of the Mughal period.

During 11th to 17th centuries Muslim invaders destroyed the city at least four times. However, it survived and was repeatedly revived; the sites and holy spots were re-searched, the monuments were repaired and re-built. Traditions survived in spite of several 'superimpositions', or attempts to submerge it. The Kashi Khanda (35.10) says "The Ganga River, Lord Shiva, and the divine city of Kashi, make the Trinity of grace and perfect bliss". The Trinity is symbolised by the three hillocks as the three forks of Shiva's trident on which the city exists, viz. Omkareshvara in the north, Vishveshvara in the central part, and Kedareshvara in the south.

With the passing of time, during the reign of Akbar's grandson Shah Jahan (1628-1657), the imperial policy changed again. By his order, about seventy-six temples under construction were destroyed. By the order of his successor, Aurangzeb (1658-1707), in 1669-1673, once again around thousand temples including the city's greatest temples like Vishveshvara, Krittivasa, and Vindu Madhava, were razed and their sites were forever sealed from Hindu access by the construction of mosques. In 1665 the French Traveler Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a dealer in jewels, paid a visit to Varanasi and described the grand temple of Vindu Madhava at the riverside, which he called a "great pagoda". His account is notable because the temple was demolished in 1673 by the armies of Aurangzeb.
Despite its reputation as stronghold of Hindu orthodoxy and conservatism, Varanasi participated in the vibrant devotional resurgence during 14th to early 17th centuries. Among the active poets and reformers the most notable were Ballabha, Ramananda, Kabir, Raidas, Tulasi, Caitanya and Guru Nanak. Kabir, indeed, was one of the greatest in all of Indian literature, whose colloquial songs are still sung today. Tulasi retold the epic story of the Ramayana in vernacular Hindi, naming it the Ramacharitamanasa and it remains today the single most popular classic, the Bible of the Hindi-speaking people.

British Period
It was from the 17th century that larger colonies of Maharashtrian Brahmans began to settle here, and with them came Vedic learning as well. After 1680 the Marathas replaced the Rajputs as major donors to the three holy places, Varanasi, Allahabad and Gaya. A fresh wave of cultural renaissance overtook Varanasi during the 18th century under the influence of the Marathas (1734-1785) who substantially rebuilt the city. The city, which had sheltered the rebel Maratha hero, Shivaji, in his challenge to Mughal power, now became the recipient of the gratitude, the wealth, the skill and energy of the Marathas. Writes a noted historian Altekar (1947: p. 24), "Modern Varanasi is largely a creation of the Marathas". Bajirao Peshva I (1720-40) has patronised construction of Manikarnika and Dashashvamedha Ghats and nearby residential quarters. A number of ghats, water pools and noted temples of Vishvanatha, Trilochana, Annapurna, Sakshi Vinayaka and Kala Bhairava were rebuilt under Maratha patronage. Queen Ahilyabai of Indore built the present Vishvanatha temple in 1775-76. As one after another ghat was added, the temples rose, the city regained its gaiety, and its educational system was revitalised.

With the decline of the government in Delhi in the early 18th century, Varanasi first came under the rule of the Nawabs of Oudh in 1722, and later became the seat of Mansaram (1730-1738), the founder of the present state of Baranas Raj in 1738. His successor Balwant Singh (1738-1770) gained the power cleverly from the Nawab in 1739 and established a fiefdom independent state, which for about forty years remained the centre of attention and source of trouble for the rising East India Company. In 1763 he built a fort on the other side of the Ganga river at Ramanagar. The tension between the two powers reached its acme in 1781, when Chet Singh (1770-1781), son of Balwant Singh, usurped the throne and put Lord Warren Hastings in serious trouble. However in 1775 Varanasi was ceded to the East India Company by the Nawab of Oudh, Asaf-ud-daula, and finally in 1794 Varanasi came under British administration with a limited jurisdiction known as 'the Banaras State'.

The face of the sacred city also changed considerably under the British rule. The urban area of the city continued to develop along the river southward and westward. Masonry bridges were built on the Ganga and the Varana river, many ponds like Benia, Maidagin and Macchodari and Godaulia Nala (rivulet) were drained and replaced by parks or streets, while many houses were demolished to widen the roads in the centre of the city. Broad roads were cut through the city where formerly there had been narrow lanes. The Dashashvamedha-Luxa Road was built running west from the river toward the Cantonment train station (now called Varanasi Junction). The north-south artery called Chauk was cleared through the business district. Slowly the city came to have its present shape. James Prinsep (1799-1840), who was the British Assay Master of the Mint in Varanasi from 1819 to 1830, published the first reliable census of the city, and also made the first and the most authentic map of the City in 1822. Moreover, on the map he has also given the latitudes and longitudes of 90 important temple and plotted over the map the Vishvanath Antargriha journey route and the temples and shrines along. In English for the first time James Prinsep (1831) has published a pictoral book.

British rule brought a major change in the ancient pandit-student pattern of learning that had predominated in Varanasi for 2,500 years. By the approval of the British Governor-General Warren Hastings in 1791, Jonathan Duncan, a British resident in Varanasi, founded a Sanskrit College, and in 1853 the present buildings of the college were built in Gothic style. The oldest local educational initiative goes back to Jay Narayan Ghosal, a rich landlord from Bengal, who with the British support founded a school in 1814. On similar lines in 1898 Annie Besant, the founder of Theosophical Society in India started a Central Hindu College, a campus which proved to be only the nucleus of a growing university. In 1916, the Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge, laid the foundation stone of what would become one of the largest and most beautiful universities in Asia, the Banaras Hindu University.Another aspect of the British period was the expansion of the activities of Christian missionaries. In 1816, the Baptist Society became the first Christian body to introduce a mission in the holy city. The Church Missionary Society of the Church of England had started to work in Varanasi beginning in 1817 and opened one churche at Sigra and another in the centre of the city at Godaulia crossing. The London Missionary Society was located in the British Cantonment beginning in 1820. Later in the century, the Wesleyan Missionary Society launched its Varanasi mission, and the Zenana Bible and Medical Mission started a hospital for women. These attempts of the Christian missions never had a chance of gaining momentum in Varanasi.

Post Independence
India received independence from the British rule on the 15th of August 1947, and declared a democratic republic state on the 26th of January 1950. Since 1947 no substantive change in the urban fabric and city morphology is recorded. On 15th October 1949 the district of Varanasi assumed its present form and area by the merger of the erstwhile Varanasi State (Kashiraj), and the city of Varanasi became the district headquarters.

In 1948 The Banaras Improvement Trust was constituted for making 'Master Plan of Varanasi', and in 1951 the first such plan was prepared. Its revision and modification were made in 1973 and 1982 when the revised plans were prepared. Not a single one of these plans was implemented; all of them were delayed and recommendations were made for further revision. The latest plan was submitted on 26th February 1996, when for the first time the concept of heritage planning and preservation of heritage zones was proposed. This plan was approved and accepted by the State Government in July 2001. In this plan five cultural zones have been identified with the purpose of a special handling of these zones.

In 1960s and 1970s, the Sarnath Institute of Tibetan Studies, and many Buddhist monasteries like the Chinese, Thai and Japanese were established. In 1990s many star hotels, mostly in the Mall area, were constructed to respond to the increasing influx of foreign tourists. Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) was set up in 1961 with technical collaboration from USA; this is the only heavy industry unit in the district. In 1992 a new Hindu Observatory was opened in the compound of Sanskrit University. The five institutions, viz. Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, the Parshvanatha Jain Institute, and Jamia Salfia Darul-Islamia have been given the official status of Deemed University by the University Grants Commission.



Sarnath renowned for ancient remains of Buddhist stupas, monasteries and temples, is situated at a distance of 6 kms. to the north of Varanasi city witch is well connected by roadDHAMEKH STUPA, rail & air.


Sarnath is one of the four most important Buddhist pilgrimage centres of India. Buddha, the great sage , after attaining enlightenment (Buddha-hood) at Bodh Gaya came to Sarnath and delivered his first sermon to five disciples (i.e. Kaundinya, Bashpa, Bhadrika, Mahanaman and Ashvajit) for redeeming humanity. It is this place where foundation of a new order of monks (Sangha) and a new order of religious doctrine (Dhamma) was laid. Sarnath is also sacred to the Jains because they look upon it as the site of asceticism and death of Shreyamshanath, the 11th Trithankara. In ancient Buddhist literature the place finds mention as Rishipatna and Mrigdava or Mrigadaya. The place was called Rishipatna , as it was here the bodies of five hundred Pratyeka Buddhas or Rishis(Sages) fell after their attainment of nirvana (Salvation). According to the Jataka, in one of his previous births Buddha as aleader of a herd of deer,for saving life of a doe, appeared before the king of Benaras who relished on the flesh of a deer everyday. On being moved by his sacrifical zeal the king made the place a free roaming ground, thus it was known as mrigadava (deerpark). The inscriptions of early medieval period found from Sarnath referred to this place as Dharamchakra or Sadhamacharka pravartana vihar. The mordern name Sarnath seems to be a contraction of Saranganath (Lord of deer) still borne by the Lord Shiva enshrined in a temple nearby. PREACHING BUDDHASarnath passed into oblivion in the 13th cent. and veil was lifted in 1798 when Mr. Duncan , the resident of Benaras gave an account of a casket of green marble inside a stone box exposed by the workmen of Jagat Singh, Dewan of Raja Chet Singh of Benaras while dismantling the Dharmaralika stupa in order to procure building materials. This discovery had created wide interest about Sarnath. Later on excavations were conducted at the site by Sir Alexander Cunningham (1835-36), Major Kittoe (1851-52), Mr. C. Horne (1865), Mr. F.O. Oertal (1904-5), Sir john Marshall (1907), Mr. H. Hargreaves(1914-15), and Mr. Daya Ram Sahni (1927-32). Archaeological excavations have brought to light about a dozen carved railing pillars ascribable to the Shunga period (2nd –lst cent. B.C.). With the advent of the Kushana (1st –2nd cent. A.D.) in north India Buddhism witnessed a new phase of Religious and artistic activities. Though Mathura was the centre of this renaissance, but Sarnath also flourished and new monuments were raised. The colossal image of Bodhisattva imported form Mathura in the 3rd regnal year of Kanishka is now exhibited in the museum. During the Gupta period (4th-6th century A.D.). Sarnath became a main centre of structural and artistic activities. Several structures including Mulgandhakuti, the chief shrine of the Buddha were erected during this period. The Dhamekh stupa is the best preserved and most impressive edifice at Sarnath. It is a cylindrical tower 28.50 mts. In diameter at base and 33.53 mts. In height. Fa-Hien the Chinese pilgrim visited Sarnath at the time of Chandragupta ll (376-414 A.D.) and saw here four stupas and two monastteries. The reign stupas and Harshavardhan (606-47 A.D.) must have initiated fresh religious activity and restorations of the earlier building at Sarnath.LION CAPITAL Hiuen-Tsang visited Sarnath during the time and left a vivid descriptinued of its monuments. This place continued to flourish during the reign of the pala kings. But the monuments of Sarnath experienced a reverse, when Benaras suffered under the spearhead of Mahmud Ghajni's invasion which is inferred from a record of the time of Mahilala, datable to 1026 A.D. Kumar Devi, wife of Govindchandra (1114-1154 A.D.) of the Gahadavala dynasty built a large monastery at Sarnath which is probably the last impressive monuments raised here and after which the architectural and artistic activitivs came to a halt. The glorious heritage remained hidden for a larger period and waited for the archaeological spade to uncover it.


THE MUSEUM - Archaeological museum Sarnath is the oldest site museum of Archaeological Survey of India. In oTARArder to keep the antiquities found from the site, a decision was taken in 1904 by the Government to construct a site museum adjacent to the excavated site at Sarnath. It was due to initiative of Sir John Marshall., the then Director General of Archaeology in India, that this museum was created. The plans were prepared by Mr.James Ramson, the then consulting Architect to the Government of India. The building was completed in 1910 to house, display and study the antiquities in their right perspective. The building forms half of a monastery (Sangharam ) in plan. There are five galleries and two verandahs on the museum to display the antiquities ranging from 3rd century B.C.to 12the century A.D. found at Sarnath The galleries have been christened on the basis of their contents, the north most gallery is Tathagata while next one is Triatna. Mainhall is known as Shakyasimha gallery and adjacent to it on south is named as Trimurti. The southern most is Ashutosh gallery, the verandahs on northern end southern side are Shilparatna respectively. Entrance to the museum is obtained through the main hall, The Shakyasimha gallery displays the most prized collections of the museum. In the centre of this gallery is the Lion Capital of the Mauryan pillar. It is 2.31 mts. In height. The lustrous polish is a special feature of the Mauryan art which has not yet been noticed in the later monuments. The capital consists of an inverted lotus, circular abacus and the crowning quadripartite semi-lions on top. The most portion was crowned with a dharmachakra with thirty-two spokes since broken. The abacus is adorned with the figures of a lion, an elephant, a bull and horse each separated by a smaller wheel or dharmachakra consisting twenty-four spokes. The four crowning lion seated back and four animals in relief. BHAIRAVAre wonderfully vigorous and true to nature and are treated with simplicity and reserve which is the keynote of all great masterpieces of plastic art and highest achievement in sculptural art of India.Today on its won virtue this lion capital has become "National Emblem" of India. The exact significance of depiction of four animals on the abacus is uncertain. Some ascribe them with great events in the life of the Buddha while other believe, they represent the four noble animals of the Buddhists. The most plausible explanation perhaps lies in the theory that they denote the four directions as laid down in Buddhust literature in connection with the Annotate lake in which Buddha used to bathe. The same animals have been depicted on pillar at Anuradhapur (Srilanka). The inscribed colossal standing image of a Bodhisativa in red sand stone is representative of Mathura school of Art. It was dedicated by monk Bala in the 3rd regional year of the Kushana ruler Kanishka. The octagonal shaft now set up behind the statue once carried a beautifully carved monolithic parasol exhibited at the northern side of the hall. It is a full bloomed lotus bearing auspicious signs. Sarnath became a prominent centre of Buddhism in the Gupta period. It has been eloquently told by the profusion of exquisitely carved sculptural art which got a new dimension in the hands of the Gupta artists and it became a main centre of Gupta art. The Sarnath School of Art is known for its elegance, simplicity of forms and sublimity. The images of Buddha, displayed in Shakyasimha gallery, represent this school of Art. Standing figure of profusely ornamented Tara is one of the best specimen of Late Gupta sculptural art of Sarnath. Tara is derived from the root 'tar' ( to cross). She helps to cross the 'Ocean of Existence'. Tara holds a position of considerable eminence in the Buddhist pantheon. She is Savior Goddess, a Deliveries and shakti of Avalokiteshvara. JAMBHAL AND VASUDHARA To the north of main hall is Triratna gallery which exhibits images of Buddhist deities and some associated objects A standing image of Siddhaikavira, a form of Manjushri, god of wisdom and knowledge is one of the earliest images of this deity. Standing Tara, holding in hand a pomegranate which has burst upon to reveal a row of seeds is a fine example of the sculptural art of fifth century. The weight of the body is thrown gently on the right leg. The jewelry is rich, yet delicate and consists of a multi stranded girdle, festooned armlets, and a series of three necklaces. Large circular earrings adorn the ears. Although the face is damaged, the gentle meditative expression remains. The elaborate coiffure consists of several rows of ringlets and curls arranged over the forehead and to the side of head, all topped by large bun. Leograph, a mythical animal, seated Bodhisattva Padmapani with a stem of full bloomed lotus, stele depicting miracle of Shracasti where Buddha multiplied himself in many forms in order to defeat heretical teachers, pot ballied Jambhala, god of wealth and prosperity alongwith his female consort Vasudhara, Ramgrama stupa being protected by nagas and inscription of Kumardevi, queen of Govindchandra of Knnauj which refers to construction of the Dharmachakra Jinavihar by the queen, at Sarnath are some of the important antiquities displayed in the western side of the gallery. Stele depicting ashtamahasthana (eight great places) or, four main and four secondary events in the life of Buddha is a remarkable piece of art which include nativity or birth of Buddha at Lumbuni (Nepal), enlightenment at Bodhgaya, preaching of first sermon at Sarnath and great demise at Kushinagar. Apart from these, Buddha descending from Trayastrimsha heaven at Sankisa after preaching his mother, miracal performed at Shravasti, honey offering by a monkey at vaishali and subjugation of mad elephant Nalagiri before Buddha at Rajgir are four events depicted in the same stele. PREACHING BUDDHARailings and pillars representing Shunga art of the first century B.C. decorated with various sacred symbols like Bodhi-tree, Dharmachakra, Triratna, Stupa and human, animal and fabulous figures are interesting. Image of Shadakshri Lokeshvara with Shadakshri Mahavidya on left side and Manidhara on right side is displayed in the showcase. All the three deities are seated cross-legged and shown with folded hands. Apart from the above objects, heads of the images of Buddha and Tara are also displayed in the gallery. Tathagata gallery displays images of Buddha, Vajrasattva, Bodhisattva Padmapani with stem of full bloomed lotus in hand, Neelkantha Lokeshvara with a cup of poison in hands and Maitreya standing and holding a nectar case in left hand and rosary in right hand with a stupa in the headdress. The most notable sculpture of the Sarnath School of Art in the museum is undoubtediy the image of preaching Buddha. The fingers of hands are hold near the chest in a special position known as Dharma-chakra-Pravartana ( Turning the wheel of Law) Mudra. This image is a remarkable example of the form of compassionate one in its spirituality and inner-bliss. The calm, relaxed and introspective face with the gentlest smile playing on the sensuous lips, drooping eyes, aquiline nose, gently curved eyebrows joined with each other, ear with distended lobes, rows of curls covering the head end sacred cranial protuberance (Ushnisha) that project from it. The halo is carved with a pair of celestial fighters and conventionalized floral scroll-work. The Dharmachakra occupies the central position of the pedestal on both side of which have been placed the figure of deer, denoting the place as Mrigdava (deerpark). The figures of five disciples to ehom Buddha preached first sermon are depicted alongwith a lady and child on the lower part of the image. The lady with a child provably donor of the sculpture. STELE DEPICTING EIGHT LIFE EVENTS OF BUDDHAImage of seated and standing Buddha in different postures displayed in the gallery are also very remarkable. On the southern side of main hall os Trimurti gallery. Pot ballied seated Yaksha figure exhibited here reminds us Pitalkhora (Maharastra) Yaksha of early lst Century B.C. Trimurti (Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh) is also an impressive sculpture. Brahmanical deities such as Surya, Saraswati, Mahishmardini also find place in the showcase. Some secular objects like figures of birds, animals, male and female heads ranging from 3rd century B.C. to 12th century A.D. are displayed in a different showcases exhibits iron implements while stucco heads, terracotta's, baked decorative tiles. Pots and pottery attract from other showcase Benevolent and malevolent figures of Kirtimukha (face of victory) are utilized as doorkeepers for the Ashutosh (Shiva) gallery. Ashutosh gallery exhibits Brahmanical deities like Shiva (in different forms), Vishnu, Ganesh, Kartikeya, Agni, Parvati, Navagrahas (Nine Planets) with Ganesh Laksmi and Saraswati. A panel depicting Navagrahas with Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh is also remarkable. Shiva as Bhairava (aggressive form of Shiva) is one of the finest Brahmanical images found at Sarnath. A colossal Andhakasuravadha (killing of demon Andhaka) image of Shiva in his terrific form is an unfinished sculpture. It is a specimen of early medieval sculptutal art of Sarnath. Bearded ten armed standing Shiva is shown killing demon Andhaka with a trident. Two verandahas, Vastumandana and Shilparatna exhibits mostly architectural members. A large lintel depecting story of Shantivadina Jataka is a beautiful piece of Art.


Sarnath is situated some four miles north of Benares, not far from the high road to Ghazipur .. A more direct route, of which traces are still extant, seems formerly to have connected the city with Sarnath . Starting from the centre of Benares near the Pachganga-ghat, where Aurangzeb's mosque forms' a conspicuous landmark, this road led due north past Lat Bhairon and crossed the Varna river at Purana Pul by a bridge, Some remains of which can still be seen a little distance above the viaduct of the mertre-gauge railway to Ghazipur. At the end of the eighteenth century a ruined Mughal bridge of three spans occupied the site. As the nearer abutment had been damaged by floods Mr. Jonathan Duncan, the then Resident of Benares had the bridge dismantled and used the stone for a new bridge over the same river near the present Bank of Bengal. Some further materials for Duncan's bridge, as we shall see later on, were obtained from the ruthless spoliation of the ancient Sarnath building. In the earliest period of which we have any record Sarnath was known as the "deer Park"(Mriga-Dava) or "Above of sages"(Rishipatana). It plays a prominent part in one of the Jataka or birth stories of the Buddha, the legend, as generally accepted, being as follows:--In one of his previous existences (Nigrodha-Miga-Jataka)the Buddha roamed the wood near Benares as the king of a heard of deer. The Raja of Banares, who was fond of sport, had slaughtered so many deer that the king of the deer demonstrated with him and offered to furnish him with one deer daily throughout the year if he would give up slaughtering them for sport. The Raja consented. After some time, when it came to the turn of a hind, big with young, to be presented to the Raja, she objected that, although if might be her turn to die, yet the turn of her little one could not yet have arrived. The king of the deer (that is, the future Buddha)was struck with compassion, and offered himself to the Raja in place of the bind. On hearing the story the Raja exclaimed:" I am but a deer in the form of a man, but you are a man in the form of a deer:" He at once gave up hiss claim to the daily gift, and made over the park for the perpetual use of the deer, on which account it was called the "Deer Park." At the time of Buddha the Deer Park presumably was a favorite resort for those engaged in religious devotions. At least the story goes that Ajnata Kaundinya and the other four early attendants of the Buddha retired there for meditatioin after forsaking their master in Uravilva. However this may have been, the Deer Park early became celebrated among the followers of the Buddha; for it was here that the master first made known his doctrines to the world, and the spot where on he sat and preached has ever been revered as holy ground by the Buddhists. Practically all that we know of Sarnath up to the fifth century of our era is derived from the monuments that have been unearthed there, and will be recounted below. From the fifth century on wards we possess much other information furnished by the in valuable accounts of Chinese pilgrims to India, Particularly by those of Fa-Hien and Hiuen Thsang, the former of whom visited the site in the beginning of the fifth century, the later between the year 629 and 645 A.D. Fa-Hien's chronicle is very concise. "Rather more," He says, "than ten li to the north-east of the city, he found the vihara in the park of the 'Rishi's Deer-wild.' In this park there formerly resided the Pratyeka Buddha, with whom the deer were regularly in the habit of stopping for the night. When The world-honored one was about to attain to perfect Wisdom, the divas sang in the sky 'The son of king Suddhodana, having quitted his family and studied the Path (of Wisdom) will now in seven days become Buddha. The Pratyeka Buddha heard their words, and immediately attained to Nirvana; and hence this place was named 'The Park of the Rishi's Deer-wild.' After the world-honored one had attained to perfect Wisdom, men built the vihara in it." Fa-Hien tells us, further, of Buddha's meeting with Kaundinya and his four companions in the Park, and speaks of four topes which he saw—one to mark the spot where the five companions rose to salute the Buddha; a second where the master "turned the wheel of the Law …" a third where he delivered his prophecy concerning Maitreya; and a fourth where a certain naga, named Elapattra, questioned him. Fa-Hien also mentions two monasteries as existing in the Deer Park.. Hiuen Thsang's description is much fuller than his predecessor's and no doubt, in his day the buildings in the Deer Park were far more numerous and splendid, and the number of bhikshus far greater than when Fa-Hien visited it. We shall have to refer so frequently in the following pages to Hiuen Thsang, that it will be as wel at the outset to quote his description at some length."To the north-east" he says, "of the river Varana, about ten li or so, we came to the sangharama of Lu-ye (stag Desert). Its precincts are ivied into eight portions(sections) connected by a surrounding wall. The storeyed towers with projecting eaves and the balconies are of very superior work. There are fifteen hundred priests in this convent who study the little vehicle according to the sammatiya school. In the great enclosure is a Vihara about 200 feet high; above the roof is a golden covered figure of the Amra (An-mo-lo) or mango fruit. The foundations of the building are of stone, and the stairs also: but the towers and niches are of brick. The niches are arranged on the four sides in a hundred successive lines, and in each niche is a golden figure of Buddha. In the middle of the Vicar is a figure of Buddha made of teou-shin (native copper). It is the size of life, and he is represented as turning the wheel of the law (preaching). To the south west of the vihara is a stone stupa buillt by Asoka-raja. Although the foundations have given way, there are still 100 feet or more of the wall remaining. In front of the building is a stone pillar about 70 feet high. The stone is altogether as bright as jade. It is glistening and sparkles like light; and all those who pray fervently before it see from time to time, according to their petitions, figures with good or bad signs. It was here that Tathagata (ju-lai), having arrived at enlightenment , began to turn the wheel of the law (to preach)."
After mentioning a multitude of other stupas and memorials Hiuen Thsang speaks of three lakes to the west and north of the monastery, and of a number of other monuments outside it, and then proceeds to describe the most magnificent stupa of all, 2or 3 li to the south-west of the sangharama. This stup was about 300 feet high. "The foundations," he states, "are broad and the building high, and adorned with all sorts of carved work and with precious stages (to this building) with niches and although there is a standing pole erected above the cupola (fau-poh), yet it has no encircling bells.
For how long after Hiuen Thsang's visit Sarnath continued to flourish is not definitely known, but the evidence of monuments and inscriptions proves that it was still thriving at least in the twelfth century A. D. and it is probable that it owed its downfall to the iconoclastic Moslems under Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who devastated Benares in 1194 A.D.; for the condition of the excavated ruins proves that a violent catastrophe, accompanied by willful destruction and plunder, overtook the place. Certain it is that after the overthrow of Buddhism in India Sarnath was completely deserted and all its buildings, with the exception of one magnificent stupa, became buried in the heaps of their own accumulated debris. Indeed, so completely leveled did the site become that is was only a fortuitous discovery at the close of the 18th century that drew the attention of archaeologists to it and subsequently led to its exploration. But before proceeding to narrate the history of this exploration, it will be conferment to describe in detail the stupa already referred to.
Locally known as the Dhamekh tower, this stupa is situated a little to the north-east of the modern Jain temple. It consists of a stone basement, 93 feet in diameter and solidly built, the stones being clamped together with iron, to the height of 43 feet Above that it is in brickwork rising to a height of 104 feet above the terrace of the temple, and 143 feet including its foundation. Externally the lower part is relieved by eight projecting faces, each 21 feet 6 inches wide and 15 feet apart. In each is a small niche, intended, apparently, to contain an image, and below them, encircling the monument, is a band of sculptured ornament of the most exquisite beauty. The central part of this band consists of geometric patterns of great intricacy, but combined with singular skill, while above and below are rich floralarabesques, the whole being peculiarly characteristic of the art of the imperial Guptas. The carvings round the niches end in the projections have been left unfinished, and judging by the absence of any fragments, either in stone or brick or plaster around the stup, it seems not improbable that the upper part of the tower was never completed.
In his examination of this tower General Cunningham found, buried in the brickwork, an inscribed stone with the Buddhist formula "Ya dharmma hetupra-bhava, etc. said to be in characters of the seventh century : and there can be little doubt that this record is contemporary with the last with the last rebuilding of the stupa. It is noteworthy also that General Cunningham found that at a depth of 110 feet from the top the stonework gave place to brickwork made of very large bricks, such as are commonly employed in the earliest class of structures in India, and there is every reason to believe that this lowest stratum of brickwork, represents the first stupa on this spot which was afterwards builds over and enlarged to the dimensions which we now see. To return, however, to the discovery referred to above. In 1794 some workmen of Jagat Singh, the Diwan of Raja Chet Singh of Benares, were digging for bricks on the site of Sarnath when they accidentally struck upon the treasure chamber of large brick stupa with a heavy stone box inside, which they proceeded to rifle of its contents. green marble casket with a few charred bones, pearls, rubies and gold leaves found its way into the hands of Mr. Jonathan Duncan. The inner marble casket has disappeared, but the outer stone box was left in its original position, where it was rediscovered by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1835. He sent it to the Bengal Asiatic Society, and it is now in the Indian Museum at Calcutta. A Buddha image which was discovered on the same occasion but not apparently in the relic chamber, was recovered, in 1849, by Major Kit toe,. Only the broken base of it is left, but fortunately the inscription, which is very important, is still legible. This fragment and several other sculptures originally collected by Major Kit toe at the Queen's college, in Benaras ,have now found their way to the Lucknow Provincial Museum.
The monument where these discoveries were made has since been known at the Jagat Singh stupa, and the this title we may still continue to designate it. It is nothing more than a more shell, all the core having been removed. This shell consists of concentric rings of brickwork laid in clay and faced with plaster, which mark the successive periods at which the stupa was enlarged. The innermost existing ring has a diameter of 44'3" , but it is impossible to say whether or not there were other and smaller rings inside it, or whether the whole of the core that has been demolished represented the original stupa. It is noticeable that the outer terrace, surrounding each successive ring, is higher than that of the preceding one. This fact is easily accounted for when one remembers that in process of time, as ring after ring was added to the stupa, the ground around rose and the floors of the later structures would thus be considerably above the original floor level.
Following on the discovery of the Jagat Singh stupa Sarnath became a favorite hunting-ground for treasure-seekers, and cartloads of images and terra-cottas are said to have been carried away. The first excavations, however, of which we have any record were those carried out by Colonel C. Mackenzie in 1815. The next explorer on the scene was General Cunningham, who, in 1835-36, unearthed a monastery and shrine of a late period on the high ground rather less than a hundred yards north-east of the Jagat Singh stupa, and a few feet, north of the latter a large collection of statues and bas-reliefs, which he presented to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Twelve years later the work of exploration was taken up by Major M. Kit toe, who was than holding the position of "Archaeological Enquirer" to Government. Major Kit toe exposed the foundations of numerous stupas and shrines around the Dhamekh tower, besides a building to the west of the tower, which he called hospital, but which was no doubt a monastery, and a second monastery west of the Jain temple. Unfortunately for archaeology Major Kit toe died before publishing an account of his discoveries, and all his notes and memoranda have been lost though a large volume of his drawings is still extant in the India office library. Muchof the stonework excavated by Major Kit toe was used by him in the erection of the Queen's College at Benares, but all the more important sculptures and carvings were collected together at the college, whence they were afterwards transferred to the Lucknow provincial Museum or returned to Sarnath. Major Kittoe's excavations of the monastery west of the Jain temple were resumed in 1853 by Mr. E. Thomas, and afterwards by Dr. F.Hall of Queen's College, who collected numerous sculptures and small objects, a number of which are to be found at the Sarnath museum. Dr. Butter obtained permission to continue Dr. hall's work, but, if he did so, no account of his operations survives. About 1865 Mr.C.Horne did some vicarious dogging at Sarnath and send his finds to the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Lastly, we hear of Mr. Rivett Carnao digging up a Buddha image at Sarnath in 1877, but what became of it is not known.


14 km. from Varanasi , on the opposite bank of river Ganga Ramnagar lies. The fort at Ramnagar houses a museum displaying the Royal collection which includes vintage Cars, Royal palkies, an armoury of swords and old guns, ivory work and antique clocks. The Durga Temple and Chhinnamastika Temple are also Located at Ramnagar. The VedVyasa temple is also there inside the premises of Ramnagar fort , and a temple of DakshinMukhi Hanuman is there. Ramnagar is also famous for the RAMLILA , which is performed every year during the month of October.


Bharat Ratan Dr. Bhagavan Das Ji:- Father`s Name: Sri Madho Das Ji., Date of Birth: 12 Jan. 1869, Place of Birth: Seva Sadan Sigra, Varanasi. Education: M.A. in Darshan Shashtra from Calcutta University. He became the first Vice-Chancellor. Hewas arrested and punished on 15 Dec. 1921 for opposing the reception of Prince of Wales.
Madan Mohan Malaviya:- Date of Birth: 18 Dec. 1861. Place of Birth: Allahabad, Place of Work: Banaras & Allahabad. Education: B.A. L.L.B. He joined as Editor of daily new paper "Hindustan". But after some time he left the job and started practice in High Court. Nationalist, Malaviya ji left practice from High Court and he worked for Nation. He established world famous University "Banaras Hindu University". He became the Chairman of Indian National Congress in 1909. Hewas selected as a member of Indian Legislative council 1919. Hewas selected as a member of Indian Industrial Commission during 1918. He went to London to participate Round Table Conference.
Dr. Anye Besent:- Date of birth: 1 Oct. 1857 Ireland. She came to India 1893. She established Central Hindu Collagein 1898. She joined Congress in 1905. She established HomeRule Leg. during 1916. Shewas selected Chairman of congress in 1917. She actively participated in freedom fight, whole life.
Sri Sriprakash Ji:- He was the son of Bharat Ratan Dr. Bhagavan Das Ji. Date of birth: 1890 He participated in freedom fighting. He went to Jail many time during "Andolan" He was Lecturer in Kashi Vidaya Pith. Hewas member of State Congress after independence, he became Ambassador of Pakistan, and Governor of Assam, Bombay and Madras.
Sri Govind Kant Malaviya:- Father`s Name Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Date of Birth:1904, Place of Birth: Varanasi. He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" 1921 and hewas punished for 6 months. He was posted as Vice Chancellor of B.H.U. and Mahamantri of Congress. He was elected for M.L.A. & M.P.
Sri Prabhu Narayan Singh B.A. L.B.B.:- Father`s Sri Pratap Narayan Singh, Date & Place of Birth: 1919, Kashipura, Varanasi. He participated in "Andolan 1942". He was arrested and punished for 3 years. He was elected as M.P. from Chandauli in 1959.
Sri Sita Ram Maurya:- Father`s Name: Sri Sarju Prasad, Place of Birth: Surujkund, Varanasi. He was the follower of Mahatama Gandhi. He joined Congress to server the Nation. He participated in "Freedom fighting" in 1941. During addressing freedom fighters at Chiraigoan, Jalhupur, Thana Chaubepur, he was arrested by british police and punished for 6 months.
Sri Surya Mani Singh:- Father`s Name & Address: Sri Mahipal Singh Village; Budhaepur. Thana Dhanapur, Varanasi.He participated in freedom fighting "Dhanapur Kand" 16/08/1942.
Sri Mahavir Singh:- Father`s name: Sri Modho Singh, Place of both: Aurangabad, Dashaswamedha, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting 1921. He punished 1922.
Sri Chandika Sharma: Village: Dudhari Sayedraja, Distt. Chandauli. He participated in freedom fighting since 1921. He was arrested and punished for two years Jail.
Sri Taropado Bhattacharya: Father`s Name: Sri Sitaram Bhattacharya, Place of Birth : Dashaswamedha, Varanasi
Sri Vishwanath Sharma: Father`s Name: Sri Nganu Sharma, Kashi Vidya Pith, Varanasi, Date of Birth: 19/04/1904. He participated in "Ashahayog Andolan" in 1921. and "Freedom fighting" during 1942.
Sri Shiv Prasad Gupta:- Father`s Name: Narotam Das, Date of Birth: 1885, Nagawa, Varanasi. He participated in "Satayagrah". He established the important news paper "AAJ" in 1921. He founded "Kashi Vidya Pith". He was appointed as Chairman of Varanasi Congress.
Dr. Sampurna Nand:-Father`s Name: Sri Vijayanand, Date & Place of Birth: 01.01/1889, Jalapadevi, Varanasi, Education:Higher Secondary from Harish Chandra Collage, Varanasi, B.Sc. from Allahabad University. He taught in various education institutes. He resigned from lectureship of Dungarpur Collage in 1921 and participated in "Asahyog Andolan". He was Chief Minister of U.P. from Dec.1955 to Dec.1960. He had been as Chancellor of Kashi Vidya Pith for whole life. He was Governor of Rajasthan from 1963 to 1967. He established Varanasi Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya during 1956.
Ram Gati Ganguli:- Date & place of Birth: 28/05/1894, Bakunda, Bangal.
Chandrashekhar Ajad:-Fathers Name: Sri Sita Ram, Village:Badarka, District: Unnao, Date of Birth:1906, Education: He came to Kashi to study Sanskrit. He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" in 1921. He joined "Hindustan Republican Army". He participated in "Kakori Train Dakaiti" during 1925.
Shachindra Nath Bakshi : Date of birth : 25/12/1904, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting from 1925 to 1927.
Kamala Pati Tripathi:-Father`s Name: Pandit Narayan Pati Tripathi. Year & Place 0f Birth:1905. He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" during 1921.
Yag Narayan Upadhaya: He participated in " Bharat Chhodo Andolan" during 1942
Dr. Raghunath Singh:- He participated in " Bharat Chhodo Andolan" during 1942
Sri Jagat Narayan Dubay:-He participated in " Bharat Chhodo Andolan" during 1942
Sri Manmohan Nath Gupta:-Father`s Name: Sri Virendra Dutta, Birth Year; 1907, Varanasi. He participated in " Asahyog Andolan" during 1921.
Kaviraj Pandit Krishna Chandra Sharma:- He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" during 1921.
Sri Baijnath singh:-He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" during 1921.
Prof. Acharya Kriplani:-He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" during 1921.
Sri Gidawani Ji:-He participated in 'Satyagrah'
Sri Satyadev Shahi:- He participated in freedom fighting during 22./01/1922.
Pandit Lakshami Narayan Sharma:- He participated in freedom fighting during 1922.
Pandit Shiv Vinayak Mishra:- Father`s Name: Sri Balgovind Mishra, Year of Birth: 1887, Place of Birth: Beeghapur, Unnao, UP. He participated in "Satyagrah Savinay Avagyan" during 1930-1932
Sri Devendra sigh(Dixit):-Place of Birth: Village:Pakat, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting during 1930-1932. He joined Agragami Dal of Subash Chandra Bosh during 1940.
Ramsurat Mishra:- He participated in freedom fighting during 1921-1922.
Sri Rustam Saiteen:- Father`s Name: Sri S.F. Saiteen, Rampura, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting during 1930-1932.
Prof. Radhaeshyam:- Father`s Name: Pandit Ram Dayal Sharma, Varanasi. Date of Birth: 11/11/1910. He participated in freedom fighting during 1942-1946.
Sri Shyamlal Sharma:- He participated freedom fighting during 1930-1932 & 1942.
Sri Rajbihari Singh:- Father`s Name: Sri Prasidh Narayan Singh,Year & Place of Birth: 1914 Kundariya, Varanasi. He participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932 and "Satyagrah Andolan" during 1941.
Sri Rajaram Shastri:-Father`s Name: Sri Mahabir Prasad, Date & Place of Birth: 04/06/1904, Aurangabad, Varanasi. He participated in "Asahyog Andolan" during 1921. and "Stayagrah Andolan" during 1941.
Smt. Radha Rani Sen:-Father`s Name: Atal Bihari Sen, Year & Place of Birth: 1885, Khalishpura, Varanasi. She participated in freedom fighting during 1930-1932.
Sri Prayag Narayan Shukla:-Father`s Name: Sri Krinshna Lal Shukla, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting during 1942.
Sri Panna Lal Drivedi:-Father`s name Sri Indralal Dwivedi. He participated in freedom fighting.
Sri Jitendra Lal Sanyal:- Father`s Name: Sri Hari Nath Sanyal, Madanpura, Varanasi.He participated in freedom fighting 1929.
Sri Satendra Nath Basu:- Place of Birth: Chaukhambha, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting.
Sri Govin Urf Makkhan Yadav:- Place of Birth: Badadeva, Varanasi. Participated in freedom fighting.
Khushahal Chandra Jain:-Place of Birth: Bhadini, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting during 1942.
Sri Uma Kant Jhan:- Place of Birth: Mirghat, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting in 1930,1931& 1932
Sri Uma Shanker Tiwari:-Father`s Name: Sri Ishwer Tiwari, Niyamtabad, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting in 1930,1931,1932 & 1942.
Sri Raj Narayan Singh:- Father`s Name: Annat Narayan Singh, Gangapur, Varanasi. He participated in freedom fighting in 1942.


Smt Anandi Devi :- Father`s Name: Sri Surabh Kalwar, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Anpurna Devi :- Father`s Name: Sri Dena Nath Battacharya, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Anpurna :- Father`s Name: Yogeshwer Basu, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1930-1931
Smt. Anpurna Devi :- Father`s Name: Sri Kritvas, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya andolan" during 1932
Smt. Alokeshi :- Father`s Name: Ram Sunder, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Freedom Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Anandi Dev i :- Father`s Name: Sri Bhulan, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Anandi Devi :- Father`s Name:Sri Shiv Gulam, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Usha Malviya :- Father`s Name:Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Freedom Fighting" during 1931 to 1935
Smt. Anye Besent: - She was the main leader of Febian Socialist & Theyosofical Society. She was the founder of "Indian Home Rule" She elected Chairman of National Indian Congress during 1917. She established Central Hindu School in Kashi during 1898. She visited England for demand of India`s freedom.
Smt. Kamala Devi :- Wife of Dr. S.C. Das, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Karnvati Dev i :- Father`s Sri Yogeshwer Ganguli, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya andolan" during 1932
Smt. Kiran Bala :- Father`s Sri Shashi Bhushan, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Kishori Devi:- Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt. Kanta Devi :- Father`s Sri Rajan Ram, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Kamada Devi :- Father`s Sri Anand Chadra, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Kali Desai :- Father`s Sri Chillu Bhushan, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Kishan Daeyii :- Father`s Sri Kali Charan, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" 1932
Smt.Kumoti Devi : - Father`s Sri Tilosadat Jauhari, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Kusum Kumari Devi: - Father`s Sri Girish Chandra Banerji, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Girbala Urf Rajani Devi :- Father`s Sri Tulasi Charan Dev Sharma, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Girbala Devi: - Father`s Sri Mohan Chandra Chakrawarti, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932
Smt.Gunvantii Devi: - Father`s Sri Bhagawan Das, Place of Birth: Varanasi. She participated in "Savinay Avagya Andolan" during 1932


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