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Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh

Geography of Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

Unnao is Situated between rivers Ganga and Sai, Unnao has, since ancient times, made place in the pages of history. The district has been popular from the view of history, literature, religious and cultural heritage.

The District is divided into 5 Tehsils Unnao, Hasanganj, Safipur, Purwa & Bighapur and 16 development Blocks namely - Ganj Moradabad, Bangarmau, Fatehpur Chaurasi, Safipur, Miyanganj, Auras, Hasanganj, Nawabganj, Purwa, Asoha, Hilauli, Bighapur, Sumerpur,Bichia, Sikandarpur Sirausi, Sikandarpur Karan.

Local traditions connect a number of well known personages like Parashuram, Dasharatha, Sharvana, Valmiki, Sita, Lava-Kusha, Rama, Bakasura, Krishna, Mayuradhvaja, Ashvatthama and Astika, mentioned in the Ramayana & Mahabharata and the Puranas, with differrent places in the district, adding sanctity to them.

Many brave personalities who played a major role in the Country's freedom struggle and sacrificed their lives for the country, were born here. Popular among them are Raja Rao Ram Bux Singh, Maulana Hasarat Mohani, Ram Beni Madhav, Pd. Vishambher Dayal Tripathi, Thakur Jsasingh, Narpat Singh, Barjor Singh, Hathi Singh, Devi Bux Singh, Mansab Ali, Kasturi Singh, Bhopal Singh and Chandrika Bux Singh.

The District is not left behind in the field of literature too, having produced learned persons right from Maharishi Valmiki to Gaya Pd. Shukla, Pratap Narayan Misra, Surya Kant Tripathi 'Nirala', Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Nand Dulare Bajpayee, Sumitra Kumari Sinha, Chandra Bhushan Trivedi (Ramai Kaka), Dr. Ram Vilas Sharma, Jagdambika Pd. Misra, Bhagwati Charan Misra, Pratap Narayan Misra and Shiv Mangal Singh 'Suman' .

Geography of Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

Location & Boundaries

The District is roughly a parallelogram in shape and lies between Lattitude 26°8' N & 27°2' N and Longitude 80°3' E & 81°3' E. It is bounded on the North by District Hardoi , on the East by District Lucknow, on the South by District Rae Bareli and on the West by the Ganga which seperates it from districts of Kanpur & Fatehpur.

Area 4589 Sq. Km

Topology

The Ganga and The Sai the chief rivers of the district have played an important role in fashioning the topology of the district which may be divided into two main parts - The Lowlands and the Upland.

Lowlands : These tracts comprising about 23.7 % of the total area of the district, lie along the Ganga in the west and along the Sai in the extreme north and east. The lowland of the Ganga also known as the tarai or khadar , lies between the main channel of the river, and its old high bank. It varies in width from a km to about 10 km getting wide wherever the Ganga meets its tributaries eg. in the north-west and in pargana Pariyar. The narrowest section of the tract lies in the pargana Unnao near the railway bridge over the Ganga. The Lowland is liable to frequent floods and is thinly populated. A considerable area of the tract is overgrown with grass and babul trees. The characteristic soil is stiff clay except where sand has been deposited by fluvial action. The lowland produces usually a precarious Kharif harvest and good Rabi crops in a succession of dry years but it is disappointing in a wet cycle. Along the immediate bank of the river, there is a narrow strip of alluvial land, constantly subject to inundations. The Ganga lowlands comprise 19% of the total area of the district. The lowland of Sai is similar though smaller in extent. It contains mostly a stiff and moist soil liable to get waterlogged in wet years and produces reh which considerably reduces its fertility.

Upland : Extending from the old high bank of Ganga to the Sai valley, the upland comprises about 76% of the area of the district. The course of the high bank, though irregular, is well defined. On top of the high bank, there is a belt of high soil, with a width of 1.5 km to 7 km. In the upland, the surface is gently undulating, the water table low, and the irrigation facilities scanty. Another belt of similar light soil is met with along the banks of the Sai. The soil occasionally rises to bhur and, in parganas Sikandarpur & Faterpur Chaurasi, there are substantial sandy bluffs projecting into the Tarai. Further inland, the tract is mainly of fertile stiff loam broken by large usar wastes and shallow rice depressions. At places, ridges of sandy soil cause large depressions in which clay predominates. The deeper of these depressions form permanent lakes & tanks. The depths and sizes of these lakes and tanks increases as one proceeds from north to south. The streams running through the tract are comparatively unimportant, with the exception of the Basha and Loni streams. The country on either side of of the former, which springs in the bhur tract in the north west of pargana Jhalotar-Ajgain and runs, like a stream, through parganas Gorinda-Parsandan, Purwa & Mauranwan and then leaves the district for Rae Bareli, is characterised by frequent outcrops of bhur. It provides a cheap and easy means of irrigation and excellent crops of rice are, in many places, grown in its bed.The Loni is shallow at its source, but during the rains, it flows in a wide bed in which excellent crops of transplanted paddy are grown.

Unnao

River Systems & Water Resources

The Ganga and the Sai are the main rivers of the district, the former making its western and southern boundaries and the latter, for the greater part of its course, forming its northern & eastern boundaries. Among the other mainstreams of the district are Kalyani, the Tanai, the Loni and the Morahi (Naurahi), all tributaries of the Ganga. These rivers generally run dry during the hot weather, but hold water during the greater part of the year and are utilized for irrigation.

Ganga

The only great river of the district is the Ganga which first touches the district near the village of Purwa Gahir, in pargana Bangarmau and flows south-eastward, seperating this district from districts Kanpur and Fatehpur. Generally it flows from north-west to the south-east, but it makes several sharp bends such as those near Umriya Bhagwantpur, and Rustampur in tehsil Safipur, Rautapur in tehsil Unnao and Ratua Khera and Duli Khera in tehsil Purwa. The Ganga receives the Morahi near Baksar where it flows close to its old high bank. It leaves the district at a short distance from Baksar.

The river is not, however, put to much use either as a waterway or as a source of irrigation. There are several ferries for pedestrians and pilgrims but none of them approaches what may be termed a trade route. The river cannot, as a rule be utilised for irrigation owing to the height of the bank but certain of its small drainage channels or sotas, which run island for a considerable distance in some parganas, are sometimes used to irrigate crops grown in lowlying alluvial lands. Otherwise, cultivated lands lie at great distances and cannot be irrigated from the river whose water would, in order to irrigate these lands, have to be passed through the sands on the sides of the river, and in the process be greatly washed, if not altogether absorbed. The main channel of the river is subject to constant variation and the cultivation in its immediate neighbourhood is, therefore of a shifting kind.

It appears from its old high bank that the river has a general tendency to shift its course to the west. In the days of Akbar, the river skirted the village of Ghatampur but has since then so altered its course that it now runs about 8 km to the south-west of this village.

Lakes

There is unusually large number of swamps & lakes of great size and value, particularly in the southern & eastern parts of the district. The larger lakes, which hold water all the year round, are the Kundra Samundar near Jhalotar, the lake near Nawalganj, the wide expanse of water near Kantha and the long chain of lakes in pargana Mauranwan. In Tehsil Safipur, the more important tanks are those at Mawai-Bhari and Kursat and the Harial Tal near Mustafabad. In Tehsil Hasanganj, besides the Kundra Samundar at Mawai, there are the Kulli Bani and Jalesar tanks near Ajgain and the chain of lakes called Basaha, which it seems, partakes of certain characteristics of a stream also, travelling a distance of 96 Kms in the district and eventually leaving it for district Rae Bareli where it is reckoned as a tributary of the river Sai. In the western part of the Tehsil are the Katgari lake near Asiwan and the stretches of water at Amarpur, Sambha, Sheothana, Marenda & Asakhera, but in its northern and eastern parts, there are only small and very shallow tanks which dry up when rainfall is deficient. In Tehsil Unnao there are no important lakes, but a number of very shallow depressions, which get filled up with water during the rains and yield excellent crop of rice.

In Tehsil Purwa there are many lakes, situated in a well defined belt stretching along the whole length of the tehsil. The main among them are the lakes at Kantha, Bhadain, Unchagaon, Qila, Akhori, Miri, Zorawarganj and Sarwan. The Barhna tank near Sagauli, the Mohan and Sukrar lakes near Mauranwan, and several others, like the Bharda lake, skirting district Rae Bareli. Besides these, there are the tanks at Sahrawan, the Bhundi tank at Gulariha, and the Kumbha tank at Bhagwantnagar. The lakes at Kantha, Sagauli, and Barela contain water all the year round, while the others generally provide irrigation for the Rabi crops only, drying up in the years of drought.These lakes and tanks abound in fish, and singhara (water chestnut) is very extensively grown in them.

Geology

Geologically the district forms part of the vast Indo-Gangetic alluvial tract, of which the origin is attributed to a sag in the earth's crust, formed, in the upper eocene times, between the northwardly drifting Gondwanaland and the rising Himalayan belt, and gradually filled in by sediments so as to constitute a level plane with a very gentle seaward slope. The alluvium formation of the district, comprising sand, silt & clay with occassional gravel, is of the the early quaternary to sub-recent age. The older alluvium called bhangar, forms slightly elevated terraces usually above the flood levels. It is rather dark in colour generally rich in concretions and nodules of impure calcium carbonate, locally known as kankar. The newer alluvium, called khandar, forming the lowlands between the Ganga and Bhangar, is light coloured, poor in calcarious contain and composed of lenticular beds of sand, gravel and clays. The economic minerals found in the district are kankar, reh and sand.

Culture of Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

Cuisine of Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

Places of interest in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

BADARQA HARBANS (Block- Sikandarpur Karan : Pargana- Harha : Tehsil Unnao)

The village of Badarqa Harbans lies about 11 km south of Unnao near Achalganj at a distance of 3 Km west of Unnao - Rae Bareli road. It was founded in 1643 AD by Raja Harbans, an official at the court of Shah Jahan, who recieved a grant of 500 Bighas from the Emperor in pargana Harha. He built a fine house here with walls of limestone blocks to a height of about 500m, surmounted with turreted walls, on an elaborate frieze of red stone over the gateway, having alternately Geese & Elephants in pairs. A large hall of audience supported on carved pillars formely stood here, but Asaf-ud-daula is said to have taken these pillars to help building Imambara at Lucknow.

The house built by Raja Harbans was was very picturesque and massive, and the strength of its construction was calculated to defy the hands of time.

BAKSAR (Block- Sumerpur : Pargana- Daundia Khera : Tehsil Bighapur)

Baksar, the southmost village of the district, lies on the left bank of the Ganga, about 5 km south of Daundia Khera and 51 km south-east of Unnao. The place is said to derive its name from a sanskrit word Bakasram denoting the residence of Baka, a rakshas, who founded a town at the site of the present village. He lived here and erected a temple to Nageshwar Nath Mahadeo. Baka is said to have been killed by lord Krishna more than 5000 years ago.
It is also said that Raja Abhai Chand, a Bais Rajput conquered the place naming it after the shrine of Bakeshwar Mahadeo and made it its capital. Ram Bakhsh Singh, the Raja of Daundia Khera, who took an active part in the freedom struggle in
1857 was anged here on a tree over a Temple which was also blown up by the British. The ruins of the Temple and and several broken images are still found in the Village.
A bathing fair, attended by a large number of people, is anually held here on the full moon day of Kartika.

BANGARMAU (Block- Bangarmau : Pargana- Bangarmau : Tehsil : Safipur)

Bangarmau , a large village, lies in the centre of the Pargana, which derives its name from this village, surrounded by extensive groves. It is situated on the left bank of Kalyani, about 49 km north-west of Unnao and 22 km north-west of Safipur on the Unnao-Hardoi road.

The ancient town of Newal stood close to te site of Bangarmau, and was occupied by Raja Nal, a local ruler and is traditionally associated with ancient site of 'Alavi' of the Buddhist records and 'Navadevakula' of Huien Tsang's travel accounts. According to Buddhist literature, Buddha stayed here for sometime and preached the gospel. The antiquity of the place is attested by the discovery of earthern black polished wares and other Archaeological finds. One terracotta piece, in particular, representing 'Aradhanarishwari' a rare specimen of its kind in India, was found here and is displayed in the National Museum. The other interesting objects found here include Manshila Mandir, Davendihar & Mahadeo Phulwari.

The Budhawa Mangal fair is held here on the first Tuesday of Chaitra. Two other fairs are also organised here by the villagers, one known as Baboo Mian ka Mela, falls on the Ist Tuesday of Chaitra, and the other, called the fair of Shitla Devi, falls on the 8th day of the bright half of the month of Chaitra.

DAUNDIA KHERA ( Block- Sumerpur : Pargana-Daundia Khera : Tehsil- Bighapur.)

Also known as Sangrampur, lies on the high bank of Morahi (Naurahi) river about 5 km west of the Unnao-Dalmau road and 29 km south of Purwa.
About the 13th century, one Abhai Chand, a Bais Rajput, drove out the Bhars of Daundia Khere, after fighting a fierce battle. Abhai Chand gave the name of Sangrampur to the village where he fought the battle. Since then it formed the home of the great Bais clan of Rajputs. Ram Bux Singh, talukdar of the place and a descendent of Abhai Chand, was hanged here for participation in the freedom struggle of 1857.

MOHAN (Block- Hasanganj : Pargana:- Auras-Mohan : Tehsil- Hasanganj)

Mohan, a considerable village lies on the left bank of the Sai river, about 6 km east of Hasanganj and 38 km north-east of Unnao. Roads lead from this place to Malihabad in Dist. Lucknow on the east, Nawabganj on the south and Bangarmau on the north-west. During the days of the Nawabs of Avadh, it was an important town, of which many residents found employment in the court of the Nawab and earned large fortunes. The town was well known for its Unani Hakims, mimics & actors.

To the south of the village near the Sai, is a high mound, supposed to be the remains of an ancient fort. On this mound is an old tomb of a Muslim Saint.

NAWABGANJ (Block- Nawabganj : Pargana- Jhalotar Ajgain : Tehsil- Hasanganj )

Nawabganj lies on the Lucknow-Kanpur National Highway, about 20Km. North-East of Unnao. It was founded in 1842 by Amin-ud-daulah, the prime minister of Avadh who built a serai and a mosque which are still in good condition.

Nawabganj a scene of heavy fighiting with 'General' Havelock's army after he crossed the Ganga at Kanpur in July/August 1857. Havelock did not face a regular sepoy army when he crossed into Avadh , Ubdool Huda Khan Kandaharee was despatched with two companies from regiment in Lucknow and 14 Guns to check the General 's Progress, But he was defeated and his guns were captured.

Tuhwar Hussain was then ordered to take command but he refused, and Mohammad Hussain who was formerly Chakladar volunteered and set out against the General. He was defeated but remained at Nawabganj, and fell upon the British troops, when the General harassed by the men of the Talooqdars' Mansab Ali, Jassa Singh, Baboo, Rao Ram Buksh and others, retreated back.

PARIYAR (Block- Sikandarpur Sirausi : Pargana- Pariyar : Tehsil- Unnao)

Pariyar, which gives its name to a Pargana, lies on the left bank of the Ganga at a distance of about 23 km north-west of Unnao. In the vicinity of the village lies the Mahua Lake.

Tradition has it that in the Treta yuga, Lakshman at the behest of his brother Rama, accompanied Sita to her banishment to this place, which in consequence, came to be known as Parhar, a sanskrit word meaning abandonment. With the passage of time the name Parhar has been converted to pariyar. It was here that Sita gave birth to Lava & Kusha who were trained in archery by Valmiki, and grew up to be accomplished warriors. They caught Shyambaran, a horse loosed by Rama during Aswamedh Yajna arranged by him and this gave a signal of for a war between Rama and his Sons whom he did not know.

The village is said to have been founded in the 12th century by Himachal Singh, a Dikhit Thakur. The place possesses 2 temples, one of Balkaneshwar Nath Mahadeo, said to have been built by Lava & Kusha and the other of Janki.

PATAN (Takia) (Block - Sumerpur : Pargana-Patan : Tehsil- Bighapur)

Patan lies on the road from Unnao to Allahabad via Achalganj, about 16 km south of Purwa. The Rae Bareli-Kanpur branch of the Northern Railway passes by the village which has a Railway station, Takia.

The village possesses a temple dedicated to Lingeshwar Mahadeo, a Tomb of Muhabbat Shah, and an ancient mound ascribed to the Bhars. A large fair known as 'Takia - Ka - Mela', is held hereon the Ist thursday of Paus, in honour of Niamat Shah, a disciple of Muhabbat Shah, a darvesh, who was a contemporary of Shuja-ud-daulah and Asaf-ud-daula, nawabs of Avadh. The story goes that once a Kurmi devotee of Muhabbat Shah fell accidently into a dry well and called out his name for help, but no one arriving, he called one Niamat Shah, who is said to have instantly appeared, and helped him out of the well. The next day the kurmi reappeared to Muhabbat Shah's hermitage place, but saluted Niamat Shah only and on being asked to explain the omission to pay his respects to Muhabbat Shah, related th story in full. Muhabbat Shah getting enraged with Niamat ordered him to die, which command he carried out at once. Niamat was buried in the Takya (grave-yard). In order to perpetuate his memory, Muhabbat Shah arranged for a fair to be held over his tomb, which is still kept up.

SAFIPUR (Block, Pargana & Tehsil Safipur)

Safipur lies on the Unnao-Hardoi road about 27 km north-west of Unnao. It is said to have been named after a dervesh Makhdum Shah Safi. On his death he was buried here and the place assumed the name Safipur. Safipur forms the last resting place of several other derveshes also of whom the chief are Ifhamullah, Kudrat-ullah, Hafiz-ullah & Abdullah.

A famous mausoleum over the remains of the dervesh Safi was erected here. Small urs fairs are held here on the 12th & 22nd day of Rabi-ul-awwal, 20th day of Jamat-us-sani, 12th & 14th days of Rajjab, 8th day of Ramzan and 14th day of Zilhaj.

FAMOUS PERSONALITIES in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

RAO RAM BUX SINGH

Also known as Babu Rao Ram Bux Singh was a great freedom fighter of Biaswara, Unnao. He was talukdar of Daundia Khera, and fought for the freedom of the country against the British. But ultimately his forces were defeated and he was cought at Varanasi and hanged to death in Daundia Khera on 28th of December 1858.
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CHANDRIKA BUX SINGH
Born in 1923, son of the King of Bethar State, Ajit Singh, Chandrika Bux Singh came to the thrown after the untimely death of his father. He gave a tough fight to the British during the First war of Independence in 1857. Afterwards also he kept on his struggle. He killed the British Commander Murray and his wife and as a consequence he was arrested alongwith his family. The British decided to kill him in the most cruel way. He alongwith his family and associated was sentenced 'Kalapani ki Saja' as per the judgement on 28th Dec.1859. On 29th Dec,1859, it was ordered that his entire property be auctioned alongwith the above punishment. On his way to Kalapani, he was killed by the British on 30th Dec.1859.

Shams-ul-ulema mohd.abdul jalil usmani (born 1862 at Neotani, Unnao)

Shams-ul-ulema mohammad abdul jalil usmani was bron in neotani and he was the professor of persian in college benaras persentely called it benaras hindu university.he was a versatile scholar in arabic, persian and urdu.he was among the six shams-ul-ulmas(grand scholar) in India.This honor was conferred upon him by the britsh governor lord elgin on the dated 22th june 1897 for his educationist views and intellectualities.He was a true scholar and patriot and had a deep vision to education for all classes. He got constructed two palatial building in neotani which are still intact and loan reminder of his love to native place. His grandsons are still living in nyotini.


MAULANA HASRAT MOHANI (born 1881 at Mohan, Unnao)

Was a freedom fighter and Urdu Poet. After his graduation in 1903, inspired by Rao Ram Bux Singh, he threw himself into the freedom struggle. He took up the Editing of the newspaper 'Urdu-A-Muallah' in 1913 and continued his struggle through his articles. As a consequence he was kept in imprisonment from 1914 to 1918 but he continued his writing work in jail. He was nominated the member of the State Assembly in 1946. On 15th May 1951, this patriot breathed his last at Lucknow and left a void which is difficult to fill.


CHANDRA SHEKHAR AZAD

A great freedom fighter and revolutionary, he belonged to village Badarqa where his parental house still exists. He had vowed that he would not be caught alive by British forces. On 27th Feb. 1931, he was rounded up by British forces at Alfred Park Allahabad. When he realised that it would not be possible for him to escape, he shot himself by his Mauser pistol and fulfilled his vow. February 27th. The significance of this date lies in the fact that today in the year 1931 a valiant patriot by the name of Chandrashekhar Azad attained martyrdom while fighting the British so that we Indians could rejoice in freedom. He joined Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement but the violence perpetrated by the British infuriated him to such an extent that he turned a revolutionary. He joined the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) as a freedom fighter and later became its leader.Azad was involved in the Kakori train robbery, the Central Legislative Assembly bomb incident, the Delhi conspiracy and the shooting of British Police Superintendent Saunders at Lahore (1928) to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai. On February 27, 1931 he shot himself dead while bravely fighting the British. He was betrayed by an Indian. He lived upto his self-pride in not surrendering and in not succumbing to the enemy's bullets. His fearlessness is signified by the fact that he continued fighting an army of British soldiers for several hours before sacrificing his own life when there was no way out, thus setting a rare example of courage and devotion to the country. He was truly a One-Man Army. The question that we all need to ask ourselves today is whether or not we are protecting the freedom that is soaked with the blood of revolutionaries like Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Sukhdev and the list goes on an on. How easily do we take this independence for granted and become happily oblivious to the fact that we would still have been slaves had it not been for brave young men like Azad. It is different that we are still besieged by evils like poverty, population, prostitution etc.


VISHAMBHAR DAYAL TRIPATHI (5.10.1899 - 18.11.1959)

Born at Bangarmau, Unnao , he was a great man in all aspects of life. He was a brilliant scholar, being a Gold Medallist from Banaras Hindu University. His enormous sacrifices for the country can be compared with any great leader or freedom fighter of the Nation. He was a close associate of Subash Chandra Bose
He was several times sent to jail during the freedom struggle.He was jailed for 6 months during the 'Namak Satyagrah Aandolan' in 1930. He was fined Rs. 450 and sent to jail for 4 months in 1931 in connection with the 'Pipri Kand'.He was again jailed for 6 months for his participation in 'Lagan bandi Aandolan' in 1932.He was jailed for 6 months in 1933 during the 'Savinay Awagya Aandolan'.He was jailed from 1942 - 1945 during the 'Krips Mission'.

He was-
The Chairman of the Committee which was sent to Andman Nicobar to assess the possibility of development over there.
The Chairman of the Zamindari Abolition Committee.
The Chairman of the recognition Committee of High School & Intermediate Board U.P.
The founder of D.S.N. College, Unnao and opened many other educational institutions in the District.
In 1946 Vishambhar Dayal Tripathi was elected to the Legislative Assembly and was the Member of Parliament from 1952 to 1959 till his death (18th Nov.1959)


Padma Vibhushan Pt. UMA SHANKER DIXIT
Born on 12th January 1901 at village Ugu of Unnao district, he got his education from Kanpur. Since his student life he joined the freedom movement and was the Secretary of the District Congress Committee Kanpur during the period when Sh. Ganesh SDhanker Vidyarthi was the President of the Committee.

He served the Country as the Home Minister, Health Minister and Governor of Karnatak & West Bengal. He also served as treasurer of All India Congress Committee, and Managing Director of Associated Journals at Lucknow. He founded a Girls Intermediate College at his village Ugu in the memory of his mother.


Pt. DWARIKA PRASAD MISRA
A great freedom fighter & diplomat, he belonged to village Padari in Unnao. As a poet he composed Mahakavya- 'Krishnair'. He became the Chief Minister of M.P. after Ravi Shanker Shukla.


SURYA KANT TRIPATHI 'NIRALA' (21.2.1897 - 15.10.1961)

'Nirala', a 'Chhayawadi' Poet, was born in Madinipur district of West Bengal. Thereon he shifted to Lucknow and then to Village Gadhakola of District Unnao, to which his father originally belonged.
He was well versed in Hindi, Bangla, English & Sanskrit and was greatly inspired by Ram Krishna Paramhans, Swami Vivekanand & Ravindra Nath Tagore. His wrote strongly against social injustice & exploitation in the society. It will not be wrong to say that he was well ahead of his time in his work.
There is a Park(Nirala Uddyan), an Auditorium (Nirala Prekshagrah) and a Degree College (Mahapran Nirala Degree College) in the district after his name.

'Janmbhumi', 'Parimal', 'Geetika', 'Anamika' , 'Tulsidas', 'Kukurmutta', 'Adima', 'Bela', 'Nai Pattey', 'Archana', 'Aradhana', 'Geet Gunj', 'Sandya Kakli' ( All Poetry)
'Apsara', 'Alka', 'Prabhawati', 'Nirupama', 'Kulli Bhat', 'Billesur Bakriha', 'Choti ki Pakar', 'Kale Karname' (All Novels)
'Lily', 'Sakhi', 'Sukul ki Bibi', 'Devi', 'Chaturi Chamaar' (All Story books)
'Bangbhasha ka Uchcharan', 'Ravindra-Kavita-Kannan', 'Prabandh-Padya', 'Prabandh-Pratima', 'Chabuk', 'Chayan', 'Sangrah' (All Essays)
'Mahabharat' (Epic Katha)
'Anand Math', 'Vish-Vriksh', 'Krishna kant ka Vil', 'Kapal Kundala', 'Durgesh Nandini', 'Raj Singh', 'Raj Rani', 'Devi Chaudharani', 'Yuglanguliya', 'Chandrasekhar', 'Rajni', 'Sri Ramkrishna Vachnamrit','Bhatrat Main Vivekanand', 'Rajyog' (All Translations)


BHAGWATI CHARAN VERMA (30.8.1903 - 5.10.1980)

A great writer,Born at Safipur, Unnao, Was Hindi Advisor at Akashwani, Lucknow in 1950
He was the member of Rajya Sabha in 1978
Awards 'Sahitya Akademy Award' in 1961 for his book 'Bhule Bisre Chitra'.
'Sahitya Vachaspati Upadhi' in 1969
'Padma Bhushan' in 1971.
Publication 'Bhule Bisre Chitra'
'Chitralekha' (The Film 'Chitrlekha' was based on this novel.)
'Prashan Aur Marichika'
'Chanakaya'
'Seedhi Sachchi Baten'

NAND DULARE BAJPAYEE (27.8.1906 - 21.8.1967)

Born at Magrayer, Unnao, was a famous Critic.Was Vice Chancellor at Vikram University, Ujjain.
Was Editor of :-'Bharat' during 1930-33 'Soor Sagar' during 1933-36'Ram Charit Manas' during 1937-39
Was Head of Hindi Deptt. at Kashi Hindu Vishwavidhalaya from 1941-1947.
Publication 'Hindi Sahitya' 'Biiswin Shatabdi' Aadhunik Sahitya' 'Naya Sahitya Naye Prashna' 'Kavi Nirala''Kavi Prasad''Maha Kavi Tulsidas' Top

RAM VILAS SHARMA (born 10.10.1912 at Unchagaon Sani, Unnao)

Hindi Scholar, MA English Literature, PhD.
Retd.Prof.& Head Dept. of English, Balwant Rajput College,Agra
Former Director K.M.Munshi Hindi Vidyapeeth, Agra
Former Gen.Secy. 'Akhil Bhartiya Pragatisheel Lekhak Sangh' (1949-53)
Editor of 'Samalochak' (1958-89)
Awards Reciepient of 'Sahitya Akademy Award' in 1970.
'Vyas Samman' from K.K. Birla Foundation in 1991.
'Bharat Bharti Samman' from U.P. Govt.
'Shalaka Samman' from Hindi Academy, Delhi
& and many other awards.
But as a noble gesture he refused the prize money of many awards with a request that it may be utilised in the promotion of literacy.
Publications More than 30 Hindi Publications.
'Prem Chand Aur Unka Yug' in 1952. 'Pragatisheel Sahitya Ki Samasyayen' in 1955
'Nirala Ki Sahitya Sadhana' ( 3 Vol.) during 1969-76
'Acharya Ram Chand Shukla Aur Hindi Aalochana' in 1973
'Bharat Mein Angareji Raj Aur Marxvad' in 1982
'Roop Tarang Aur Pragatisheel Kavita Ki Vaycharik Prishthbhoomi' in 1990
'Bhartiya Sahitya Ki Bhoomika in 1996.
'Itihas Darshan' in 1997.
(The above are all critics & history of literature.)
'Pragati Aur Parampara' in 1953
'Aastha Aur Saundarya' in 1960
'Bhasha Aur Samaj' in 1961
'Bharat Ki Prachin Bhasha Parivar Aur Hindi' in 1979
(The above are all essays)
'Apni Dharti Apne Log' (Autobiography : 3 Vol.) in 1996
'Swadhinta Sangram - Badelte Pariprekshya' in 1992.

SHIV MANGAL SINGH SUMAN (born 5.8.1915 at Jhagarpur, Unnao)

Hindi Poet, M.A.,PhD in Hindi (both from B.H.U.)
Presently Exec. President Kalidas Academy, Ujjain.
Career V.C., Vikram University, Ujjain during 1968-78.
Vice-President U.P. Hindi Sansthan, Lucknow , Press & Cultural Attache, Indian Embassy, Kathmandu Nepal during 1956-61
President, Association of Indian Universities, New Delhi during 1977-78
Visited Nairobi (Kenya), Mauritius, Nepal, Afganistan, erstwhile USSR, France, England, Mangolia, Australia and Several other Countries.
Awards 'Deva Puraskar' in 1958 'Soviet Land Nehru Award' in 1974 'Sahitya Akademy Award' in 1974'Shikhar Samman' in 1993 from M.P. Govt.'Bharat Bharti' Award in 1993 and several others.
Hons. Conferred 'Padam Shri' by the Govt. of India in 1974
D.Litt. by Bhagalpur University in 1973 & by Jabalpur University in 1983.
Publications 'Hillol' in 1939 'Jeevan ke Gaan' in 1942 'Yug ka Mol' in 1945
'Pralay Srajan' in 1950 'Vishwas Badalta hi Gaya' in 1948 'Vidhya Himalaya' in 1960
'Mitti Ki Baarat' in 1972'Vani ki Vyatha' in 1980'Kate Anguthon ki Vandanvaren' in 1991
The above are all Poetry.
'Mahadevi ki Kavya Sadhana' in 1951'Geeti Kavya : Udyam Aur Vikas' 1995' (Both Critic)
'Prakriti Purush Kalidas' in 1961 (Play)

BHUPENDRA NATH SHUKLA (born 16.5.1918 at Hafizabad , Unnao)

Hindi Writer, BA,LLB
Participated in 1942 movement and imprisoned.
Former Secretary & President, City Congress Committee, Unnao
Member UP Congress Committee for 20 years.
Former President Bar Association, Unnao & Trustee of a number of Educational and social organisations.
Former President Zila Parishad Unnao.
Founder Member of V.D.Tripathi Hindi Vidyapeeth Unnao.
Awards Reciepient of 'Bhartendu Harishchandra Award' for Drama.(thrice)
'Sahitya Bhushan Award' by U.P. Hindi Sansthan. 'Sahitya Manishi Award' by Nirala Mahavidyalaya Unnao.'Sahityashree', 'Nirala Samman', 'Naveen Samman'.
Publications 'Brah Ke Geet' in 1943 'Killol', in 1988, 'Madhvi' in1986 (both Poetry)
'Gaon ka Aadmi' in 1988, 'Dhanpati' 1989, 'Shripati', 1991 (all novels)'Yug Seemayen' in 1987, 'Pryambada' 1991, 'Shaktibodh' 1988 (all plays)'Yug Nirmata Nehru' in 1989 (Biography)
'Bahadur Shah Zafar' in 1981 'Valley of Death' (an English Novel based on Ayodhya) in 1994
'Vaidehi Parinaya', Yugantar''Lashon Ka Maqbara' (a Hindi Novel based on Ayodhya) in 1991
'Siyaar Daroga' (Short story for children) in 1994

MAIRAJ ZAIDI (born 22.11.1949 at Chaudhrana, Unnao)

Stage Plays 'Agra Baazar' directed by Habib Tanveer (68 shows ).
'Charan Das Choor' directed by Habib Tanveer (8 shows).
Contribution : He acted in these Plays.
'Curfew' adopted from Novel 'Shahar Mein Curfew' written by Vibhuti Narain Rao 'Tamacha'
'Raj Darshan'
Contribution : Direction, Screen Play, Acting & Dialogue Writing.
T.V. Serials :'Raja Ka Baaja' directed by Sayeed Mirza (27 episodes have been telecast on DD-I)
'Farz' : Nimbus Productions (17 episodes.)'Chamatkaar' directed by Partho Ghosh. (6 episodes)
'Rishtey' (Telecast on Sony) Contribution: Dialogue Writing.
'Ghadar - 1857' based on The First war of Independence directed by Sanjay Khan.
Contribution: Research Story, Screen Play & Dialogue Writing.
Documentary Films: 'Pehli Baar' directed by Sayeed Mirza (Telecast on Bhopal Doordarshan)
Contribution: Dialogue Writing.

Pd. PRATAP NARAIN MISHRA ( 1856 - 1894 )

Born at Baijegaon, Unnao, a renowned Poet and Writer of 'Bhartendu Mandal', he has more that 50 books under his name. He was the editor of 'Brahmin', a mothly magazine. All his publications have been compiled into 'Pratap Narain Mishra Granthawali' by 'Nagri Pracharini Sabha', Kashi. He was well versed in Sanskrit, Urdu, Farsi, English and Bangla. He was a humourous person and had a lifestyle of his own. Publications :'Prem Pushpawali', 'Man ki Lehar', 'Trapyantaam', 'Vraidla-swagat', 'Shaiv Sarwasva', 'Kavita Lehari' 'Hathi Hameer', 'Kali Kautuk', 'Bharat-Durdasha' (All Plays)


JAGDAMBIKA Pd. MISHRA 'Hitaishi' ( 1895 - 1956 )

'Shahidon ki chitaon par judenge har baras mele.'
'Watan par marne walon ka yahi baki nishan hoga..'
Above are the popular lines of his poem 'Matra Geeta' which was banned by the British Government.
Born at Ganj Moradabad, Unnao he was popular for applying 'Savaiya - Chhand' in 'Khari boli' for which he got appreciation from great personalities of his time namely Acharya Mahavir Pd. Dwivedi and Acharya Ram Chandra Shulka. He had a strong hold of Sanskrit, Bangla and Farsi.
Publications: 'Kallolini' 'Matra Geeta' 'Baikali' 'Darshana'

RAMAI KAKA ( 2.2.1915 - 18.4.1982 )

Born at Rawatpur village of Unnao in a ordinary agriculturist family, Ramai Kaka was a Comedy Poet and an Artist. After passing his matriculation, he worked as Inspector in Planning department. Due to his illness he took early retirement from service in 1938. He was offered to perform on 'Aakashvani' in 1940. His performance as an actor in the programme 'Bahire Baba' on Aakashvani Lucknow earned his great fame. His programmes were also broadcasted on BBC London. During his 35 years of service in Aakashvani, he wrote Plays, comedy plays, 'Nautanki', and a number of Poems. He was a simple person who held high moral standards
Publications: 'Bauchhar''Bhinsar''Netaji''Fuhar''Harpati Tarwar''Gulchharra'
'Hasya ke chhente' 'Mati ke bol'
Awards: He was honoured with a special award of Rs.5000/- by 'Rajya Hindi Sansthan' for his contribution to Hindi literature.

Events in Unnao, Uttar Pradesh

National Record 2012

Most comprehensive state website
Bihar-in-limca-book-of-records

Bihar became the first state in India to have separate web page for every city and village in the state on its website www.brandbihar.com (Now www.brandbharat.com)

See the record in Limca Book of Records 2012 on Page No. 217