LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES
The district of Azamgarh comprises a somewhat irregularly shaped tract of country lying south of the Ghaghra river, between the parallels of 25 degree 38 seconds and 26 degree 27 minute North latitude and the meridians of 82 degree 40 minute and 83 degree 52 minute East longitude. The administrative hq. of Azamgarh is on Lucknow-Baliya state highway , 269 km. from capital Lucknow.
HEIGHT FROM SEA LEVEL- 77.65 mt.
AREA - 4234 sq.km.
TOTAL POPULATION- 31,53,885 (according to Census-91)
Its boundaries are-
NORTH - GORAKHPUR
SOUTH-EAST --- GHAZIPUR
SOUTH- WEST --- JAUNPUR
WEST -- SULTANPUR
NORTH-WEST --- AMBEDKAR NAGAR
The river Ghaghra separates the district from the Gorakhpur.
In its general aspect the district is a level plain without any hills, the only variations in the surface being caused by the bad lands along the streams that drain it. Except in the proximity of the Ghaghra the country slopes gently towards the south-east. Here and there will be found depressions of varying depth and extent in which the surface drainage of the interior collects. There are some high lying usar plains.
RIVER SYSTEM AND WATER RESOURCES:-
GHAGHRA:-The river has its origin in the mountains of Kumaon and Nepal and is formed by the combined waters of the Chauka, Kauriala, Rapti and many smaller streams. It swells during the rains to an immense size, when its current becomes very rapid, and damage from floods is often severe. It will at times form one or more subsidiary channels, into anyone of which it may suddenly turn its whole force, tearing through the intermediate land. At such times it deposits nothing but sand, but at other times it will confine itself to a single channel and lays down stretches of fertilising silt. The Ghaghra makes the northern boundary of the district and separates it from Gorakhpur.
Other Rivers:-Among the minor channels which traverse the district is river Tons(Tamasa), into which the Chhoti Saryu flows. This river takes its rise many kilometres beyond the borders of Azamgarh in the Faizabad district. It flows parallel with the Ghaghra till it caters the district 9.6 km. north-east of Mahul. It is soon after joined by a small tributary called the Majhoi on the borders of pargana Nizamabad and it flows then in a very tortuous course for about 56 km. to the station of Azamgarh. Then it runs north-eastwards for 12 km. to Birman in the south of Sagri and then south-eastwards past Muhammadabad to the point of junction with Chhoti Saryu. The stream of the Tons is perennial but during the dry months of the year only a sluggish current of water flows in the bottom of its bed.
LAKES:-Lakes and jhils of the district are not only very numerous, but in many cases of considerable size. The more important of them are, in the southern tract, those known as Kotail, Jamuawan, Gumadih, Kumbh, Pukh, Asaune and the largest of all the Gambhiran. In the northern section of the district , the only lakes that deserve mention are Koila, Kasila-Gasila, Kaili, Duhia Birna, Ara Telhnan and Manchhil. The Salona Tal in Sagari tehsil is estimated to be over 3660 metres long by about 2750 metres broad, its depth being some 6 metres. The Pakri-Pewa Tal in Ghosi tehsil is 9.6 km. long and 3.2 km. broad while the Narya Tal in Muhammadabad tahsil and the Ratoi Tal in Ghosi tahsil cover each some 2023 heactares.
The climate of the district is moist and relaxing except in winter and hot seasons. The year may be divided into four seasons. The period from March to the middle of June is the hot season. The south west mansoon season which follows continues up to about the end of September . The succeeding period lasting till end of November is the post mansoon or transition season. The period from December to February is the cold season.
RAINFALL:-The average annual rainfall in the district is 1021.3 mm. and it varies from 979.1 mm. at Deogaon to 1060.4 mm. at Azamgarh. On an average there are 50 rainy days(i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm. or more) in a year in the district. This number varies from 48 at Deogaon to 52 at Azamgarh.For agriculture purpose the most critical period is rainy season from June to October. Agriculturists reckon during that season by the periods which are known as maha nakshatrs, and which they call nakhats. There are twenty-seven nakshatrs in the solar year. The six nakhat to the period between June 19th and the 2nd July is known as adra. The 13th is known as hast or hathia and corresponds to the period between September 24 and 7th October. A favourable season for agriculture begins with a good fall in rain early in adra and ends with a similar fall in hast.
Industries in Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh -
The industrial base in Azamgarh is not very strong, but the district has good agricultural base. The dominating agricultural and weak indusrial base together appear to leave a gap, which can be effectively bridged by a co-ordinated approach to enrich the economy of the district. The main industries are as below:-
THE KISAN SAHKARI CHINI MILLS LTD.,SATHIAON, AZAMGARH -
The mill is situated at a distance of about 13 km. from district headquarter Azamgarh on the road connecting to Azamgarh-Mau. It was established in 1975, its main productions are pakki chini, rab. The waste material used as fertilisers.
BENARASI SARI UDYOG,MUBARAKPUR (Hanloom and Powerloom Industry) -
This constitute the most important industry in the district affording maximum employment and is responsible for major percentage of valus of industrial production in the district. It is a village household industry with looms setup in the most of rural households. The main places are Mubarakpur, Jahanaganj, Jeeyanpur etc. The Weavers are generally very proficient possessed of innate skill, and use mill made yarn. The yarn is first dyed in their own houses or by a local dyer. The yarn is usually obtained in the form of ranks and as such it has to be loosened and unwound before it is wrapped and sized. This is done by members of the weaver household. The dyed yarn is then operated into the pit fly shuttle loom and weaved into cloth or saris or lungis. This industry is getting incentive from the State government.The benarasi sari of Mubarakpur is famous all over the world.
BLACK POTTERY, NIZAMABAD -
One of the oldest industries of the district, pottery still contributes substantially to the economic life of the people. The fancy pottery made in Nizamabad is famous in the world. The potters this place make tea-pots, sugar-bowls and other decorative articles. The earthen wares and statues of Gods and Goddesses particularly of Ganesh, Laxmi, Shiva, Durga and Saraswati are also made. These products fetch rich market during fairs and festivals. This particular smooth black play is plentifully available in the district. The black look is obtained by dipping the pot into the solution of clay and vegetable. After that for better look they use mercury,ranga and lead.
The following potters are being awarded by State and Central government-
State Merit Award:-
1.Smt.Kalpa Devi w/o Shri Rajendra Prasad in year 1979,1983
2.Shri Purnamasi in year 1980
3.Shri Ramjatan s/o Shri Rajendra Prasad in year 1987
4.Shri Ramlal in year 1989
National Merit Award:-
1.Shri Rajendra Prasad Prajapati in year 1979,1987
2.Shri Purshottam Ram s/o Sri Hiravan in 1984
FOODS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS -
Biscuits, toffee and other confectionery articles are produced at Azamgarh. Sugar, maida, suji and ghee are used as raw materials in this industry.
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS -
Candles, Ayurvedic, medicines, soap, perfumed oil and paints are manufactured in Azamgarh and Phoolpur.These units use wax, colour, castic soda etc. as raw material.
Azamgarh is rich in cultural and religious activities since Azamgarh lies in the eastern part of the Uttar Pradesh . The tradition language is particularly Bhojpuri or Purvi. The major community belongs to Hindu religion and they are divided into 4 branches which are Brahman, Khatriya, Vaisya, Sudra. The ancient division was mainly occupational but gradually it developed into a hereditary order. The principal deities worshipped by the Hindu are Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Laxmi, Ram, Hanuman, Ganesh and nine forms of Devi(Durga), viz, Shailputri, Brahmcharni, Chitraghanta, Kusamandini, Skandmata, Katyayani, Mahagauri, Kalratri and Sidhmata. The practice of a taking a holy dip in river is also famous. The important festival are Nav Durga, Ramnaumi, Krishna Janmasthmi, Shivratri, Deepawali, Dashara and Holi. The sacred books are Vedas, Upanishads, Geeta, Shrimad Bhagavata, Puran and Ramayan.
The famous Folk song - Kajri, Barahmasi, Chaumas, Phagua, Kahrava, Birha, Kawwali, Alha, Kirtan, Jogia, Bhajan, Kavi sammelan, Musayara etc.
The famous folk dances- Nautanki, Ramlila, Krishnalila, Bandar and Bhalu dance, Kaharwa dance, Dhobiya dance, Kirtan dance, Ahirwa Dance etc.
Majority of the muslims in the district belong to the Sunni sect. Among them the most numerous are Julahas or weavers. They pray God and his prophet, Muhammad known as namaj preferably in a Mosque five times a day, keeping fast(Roja) in the month of Ramjan, proceeding on Haj to Mecca. There holy book is Kuran, and major festival are Id-ul-Fitr , Id-uz-Zuha and Moharram. The people of other religion like Sikh, Christian, Buddhism, Jainism are in very minor number.
AZAMGARH CITY (Tehsil- Sadar, Block- Palhni):-
The principal town of the district also gives its name to the district headquarter and forms a tahsil of the name Sadar. It is situated in Lat.26 Degree 4 minute(North) and Long. 83 Degree 11 minute (East), on the road leading from Allahabd through Jaunpur to Gorakhpur. Metalled road from this place lead south-east wards to Ghazipur and Mau and west-wards to Shahganj. There is a railway station of the same name on a branch of the north eastern railway. The city was founded around 1665 by one Azam Khan son of Bikramjit. The old fort of Azam Shah is situated on the bank of river Tamsa in east of city. There are 2 boys degree colleges-D.A.V.Degree college, Shiblee Degree college and 1 girls degree college-Agrashen Girls Degree College. On the road of Azamgarh-Ghazipur Shri Durgaji Post Graduate Degree college, Chandeshar is situated. Which is 5 km. from city. The agricultural and Homoeopathic medical college is also here.A Famous urdu library named as Shilblee library located at Shiblee Academy. The Kunwar singh park is situated in the city.
NIZAMABAD (Tahsil- Nizamabad , Block- Rani ki Sarai):-
Situated in Lat. 26 degree 3 minute north and Long. 83 degree 1 minute E, on the banks of the river Tons, the place falls on Azamgarh-Nizamabad road at distance of 17 km. from district headquarter.A local tradition ascribes its nomenclature to one Sheikh Nizam-ud-din, a Sufi saint the reamins of whose tomb are pointed out here.
The famous Gurudwara possessing a pair of wooden slippers and a dagger said to be of Guru Nanak who once visited the place. The black poutry is famous in the world. This is Born-place of famous poet Ayodhya Singh 'Harioodh'.
MAHARAJGANJ (Tehsil- Sagari , Block - Maharajganj):-
Situated in Lat.26 degree 15 minut N. and Long. 83 degree 5' E., at a distance of about 23 km. from dist. hq. and 24 km. from tehsil hq., the place is located on the banks of Chhoti Saryu and is connected by metalled roads to Bilariaganj and Jianpur. The place is said to have derived its nomenclature from one of the rajas of Azamgarh, after whom the place came to known as Maharajganj.
An old shrine dedicated to Bhiron Baba also known as Deotari, is by one tradition the spot where Parvati , the consort of lord siva, is said to have exhumed herself in the pyre of Daksha's yajna bedi or pyre on which the yajna sacrifice was to be performed. Yet another tradition describes it as being a gate of the ancient city of Ayodhya, from which it is 40 kos or 120 km. distant. It as the venue of a fair held every month on the day of full moon , but on the lenth day of the bright halh pf Jyaistha, a larger fair is celebrated. The development block is Maharajganj.
MUBARAKPUR ( Tehsil- Sadar, Block- Sathiaon):-
Mubarakpur is situated in Lat.26 degree 6' N. and Logitude 83 degree 18' E. at a distance of 13 km. north-east of the district headquarter.
Its original nomenclature is said to have been Qasimabad, and to have fallen into decay before it was resettled, in the name of Raja Mubarak, a Sufi of Manikpur Karaa, by a sheikh landholder. The place is famous for the manufacture of Benarasi saris, which are also very popular and exported to the World. Among the old buildings the temple of Thakurji and mosque of Raja Sahib is situated there.
MEHNAGAR (Tehsil- Mehnagar, Block- Mehnagar):-
It is situated 36 km. from the district headquarter in east-south. The monuments of the fort built by king Haribans and huge pond is famous here. A religious fair is being organised every year on the ponds named as Madilaha which is 3 km. from tehsil headquarter.
This place is situated on the sangam of Tons and Majhuee river which is 6 km. north from the Phulpur tehsil headquarter. It is famous for the Ashram of Durvasa Rishi where in old days thousands of students came to gain the knowledge of famous fair held every year on the occassion of Kartik Purnima.
This place is situated on the sangam of Tons and Kunwar river , 3 km. from Nijambad tehsil hq in the direction of south-west. There is a Ashram of Dattatreya Rishi where in past days the people came to achieve knowledge and peace. On the day of Shivratri fair is organized.
Mahatma Govind Sahab had worshiped here.
This place is 6 km. distant from the Atraulia Block. On the day of Agahan sudi Dashmi a very big fair is held in which the cattle like cow, bull, buffalo, camel, horse, donkey and elephant are sell and buy. The period of fair is about one month.
This place is situated in the development block Muhammadpur. The tradition say that Raja Janmejai has organized Yagya for killing the all snakes on the earth.The temple and ponds of this place is famous, the people come here to take a holy dip in the pond.
Important Persons of Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh -
Ayodhya Prasad 'Hari Oudh' -
Rahul Sanshkrityayan -
Shyam Narian Panday -
Laxmi Narain Misra -
Soond Faizabadi -
Allama Shibli Nomani -
Allama Shibli Nomani was a writer, poet, historian, teacher, nationalist and intelletual personality of Azamgarh. He was born in 1857 at Bindval village in Sagari tahsil from the beginning the Nomani was very talented. He completed his early education from his village and from other places. He received the knowledge of traditional Islamic science and Indian study in touch with Farooq Chiryakoti. After passing the law examination he became lawyer. Siblee was a brilliant writer and his famous writings are Hayat-e-Khurusu Al-mamum, Al-gazli.His most famous creation is Sirat-un-nabi which is based on the biography of prophet Mohammed).
Zami Chiraiyakoti -
He was a famous poet, author, writer. He belongs from village Chiraikote of District Azamgarh U.P. His father Late Allama Kaifi Chiraiyakati was a famous writer who has written so many books in Urdu, Persian, Arabic and hindi. He has written a book on "History of Urdu Literature" called Jawahire-Sukhan in 8 volumes which earned International fame. Jami Chairaiyakoti has received many awards from government body. He has received the prestigious Award 'Rahul Puruskar' in 1992. He has written many famous books, some of these are-'Apni Dharti Apne Geet', 'Dharti ka Chirag', Sitaro se Aage', and Kavivar Shaida'.
Sham sur Rahman Farooqui -
Kaifi Azmi -
Sabana Azmi -
Bihar became the first state in India to have separate web page for every city and village in the state on its website www.brandbihar.com (Now www.brandbharat.com)
See the record in Limca Book of Records 2012 on Page No. 217