Datia, Madhya Pradesh
Datia is the Smallest district of M.P. forming eastern part of Gwalior Commissionery. The district lies into a main body of land mostly on the Sindh -Paluj Doab and five enclaves (Basai,Kamra )surrounded by the portion of Shivpuri district and bordering Jhansi district of U.P. The main body of the district extends between the N-latitude 250, 28' and 260, 20' and E-Longitude 780, 10" and 780, 45'. The farthest enclaves extends in the South upto 250 3' N, near Talbahat. The district is bounded by Bhind and Gwalior (Main block) districts in the North, Shivpuri district of M.P and Jhansi district of U.P. in the south, Gwalior and Shivpuri (Main block) district in the west and Bhind district of M.P. & Jhansi district of U.P. in the East.( Plate I) . Datia, the district headquarters is the only town with sufficient urban activities and is connected with Gwalior & Jhansi by the Delhi-Bombay Main line of the Central Railway. It is also accessible by the roads from Gwalior, Jhansi, Bhander and Bhind.
The Datia district forms a part of Bundelkhand region covering an area of 2959 Sq.km The district is divided into three tehsils and three blocks of the same name i.e., Datia, Seondh and Bhander. The district is predominantly a rural district there are 4 towns and 583 villages. The district includes three tehsils and three blocks. The total population of the district of as per 2001 census is 664159 .
Physiographiy and Drainage -
The general level of the country is about 198 metres but the variations range from about 152 to 335 metres above the Mean Sea Level. The District can be studied under two physiographic divisions, viz. the Lower Extension of Bundelkhand Plateau and the Gangetic Plain, In Fact, the second division is also an imperfect fringe of the Gangetic alluvial-belt. The whole district is uniformly sloping towards the north-east but the mounds and hillocks of otherwise concealed granite are also marked intermittently on the plain.
Physiographically the district can be divided in to three parts.
1. Southern Hilly Region
2. North & Central Hilly Region
3. North & Central Plain Region
The main body of the district is drained by the two important rivers, viz, the Sind and Pahuj. The Sind flows along the western boundary for a considerable distance, whereas the Pahuj touches the eastern boundary only for about a kilometre and a half . Thus the drainage of the district is divided into these two rivers. The water divide line runs through the district from south-west to north-east. East of the water divide line the tributary streams flow towards the north-east while those in the west flow in a north-westerly direction and join Sind. Beyond the district boundary in the north, Pahuj, the eastern river, joins the Sind which itself joins the Yamuna. Thus the whole district falls in the Ganga basin. The character of the rivers is seasonal. Most of the streams and the span of the river-beds dry up in the winter and summer seasons. The run off in the rainy season is very large. The water potential has not been assessed so far.
The area is irrigated by tube wells, dug wells and tanks. The area irrigated by dug wells 56 %, tube wells 3 % and canal is 37 %. Thus, ground water is the main source of irrigation in the area.
RAINFALL & CLIMATE -
The climate of Datia district is characterized by a hot summer and general dryness except rainfall during the southwest monsoon season. The year can be divided in to four seasons. The cold season, December to February is followed by hot season. from March to about first week of June is the summer season. May is the hottest month of the year with temperature of 42.10C. The minimum during the January is 7.1 0C .
The southwest monsoon starts from middle of June and lasts till end of September. October and middle of November constitute the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. The normal annual rainfall of Datia district is 793.8 m/hr. About 90.4 % of annual rainfall is received during monsoon season. Only 9.6 % of annual rainfall takes place between October to May.
The humidity comes down lowest in April. It varies between 26 % and 83 % at different time in different seasons. The wind velocity is high during the monsoon period as compared to pre and post monsoon. The wind velocity is highest in June around 11.3 km/hr and lowest is 3.1 km/hr in November. The average normal annual wind velocity of Datia district is 6.8 km/hr.
GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SOIL -
The southern part around Datia town lies in the granite area and forms a somewhat barren and rocky tract. The tract lies above 213 metres and the prominent hills lie to the south-east and west of Datia. The hill near Gharwa is 308 metres, Udnu-Ki-toria 326 metres and Baroni hill 317 metres. The tract is gradually covered by the alluvium and the hard masses reappear only across the Sind on its north-western side. North-west of Seondha and the left bank of the Sind, a low range of sandstone hill overlook the river and extends up to its north-eastern bend in the District.
The height of the scarp on its south-eastern face is 30 to 01 metres. These hills join the Gwalior range in the west and slope towards the north, where also the rocks beneath the alluvium disappear. Among these hills there are three peaks which rise above 244 metres, the highest of 263 metres being in south. Seondha hill on the northern bank of the Sind, opposite the village is over 183 metres. The plateau area is either bare or stony on steep slopes or is covered with reddish soil or black cotton soil.
Most of the central and northern parts of the the District lie in the Sindh-Pahuj Doab which forms the southern margin of the Gangetic valley.
The central part of the District is from 183 to 213 metres above the Mean Sea Level whereas the northern part and the area south-east of Maithana (Bhander tahsil) lie below 183 metres.
Although dotted with hillocks and low mounds of granite the valley is flat, uniformly and gently sloping towards the north-east, and formed mostly of the river alluvium. Other types of soil are also met with near the mounds and on the upper reaches. Deeper alluvial deposits occur along the major rivers ad streams of the District.
The alluvial soil is loamy and fertile. Admixture of sand, in varying proportions and of various sizes of grains produces a number of soil types. Due to location factor also, some sub-types are added. The soil in the low-lying flats with poor drainage is usually saline. It is generally brown in colour. The alkaline soil is grey, sticky on wetting and hard on drying acquiring a cloddy structure. Growth of crops or flora is difficult at places where undulating Kankar layer often comes up on the surface in any soil region. Due to alternate leaching and capillary rise of moisture the subordinate layer of calcium carbonate is also undesirable.
The alluvial tract is marked by the gullies along the major rivers and their tributary streams caused by the water-action on the loose soil. The banks of the deep streams and their upper reaches in the alluvial tracts are experiencing the rill-erosion which is the early stage of gully-formation.
To some extent it is a natural process but is accelerated because of the removal of the natural flora, uncontrolled grazing, careless ploughing and unplanned management of field drainage, Gullies have developed in the alluvium all along the Sind, the Mahuar and the Parron. The nala-banks are also cut up around Imalia, Bauhara, and Badora
GROUND WATER SCENARIO -
The district is underlain by granite, sandstone, shale and alluvial formation and occurrence of ground water in different formation varied with the rock type (Plate II). About 70% of area is occupied by alluvium the extending from Indergarh to Secondha, (South to North) and Goreghat to Pandokhar (West to East). The thickness of alluvium varies between 20-60 m. It is the most extensive aquifer system in the district. Two or even more aquifer system comprising of fine to medium to coarse-grained sand are encountered. The top phreatic aquifer ranges in thickness of 3 to 10 m and encounter of 4 to 30 mbgl.
The phreatic aquifer mostly comprises of clay, fine sand with silt and at places coarse sand. The most productive aquifer is encountered between 40-50 mbgl existing
under semi confined to confined condition under the thick clay. The aquifer consist of coarse sand yields 10 to 30 lps.
Ground water in granite occurs in joints, fractured planes and mostly in weathered zone under water table condition. The occurrence of ground water is controlled by degree of weathered size and interconnectivity of joints, which varies from place to place.
Dug wells and tube wells sustain discharge of 2-10 lps depending on degree of weathering and fracturing. Sandstone of Gwalior system with limited extent in northern part of the district is hard with thin bedding plane.
Ground water occurs mostly in unconfined condition, but at places in semi confined conditions. The yield potential in this formation ranges between 2 to 10 lps. The transmissviity in the granite area is 16 m2/day and 135 m2/day .
Ground Water Movement -
The water table contain map of the district shows that all stream the Sindh and Pahuj are effluent in nature. The quartz reef and granite out crops at places act as ground water barrier. The water table elevation varies between 156-190m amsl in northern and central parts 190 to 220 m amsl in the southern part of the district.
The hydraulic gradient in the North eastern side is 6 to 8 m/Km and 10 to 25m/km in southern part of the district. Northern and North eastern part of the district flow direction is generally NE and SW and NW in southern part. The area showing gentle hydraulic gradient indicates higher permeability in north and north eastern, North western part of the district. While the area of steeper hydraulic shows low permeability in south and south western part of the district.
The prominent ground water divide coincide with the surface water divide in the area which is indicated by diverse of the flow. The major ground water divide/ surface water divide runs NE- SW probably along the quartz reef.
Ground water levels form a very important parameter of the ground water system, as these are its physical reflection. The groundwater balance expresses itself in the change in water levels; hence a continuous record is important and useful. CGWB has 07 National Hydrograph Monitoring Wells in Datia district.
Pre-monsoon (May 2006)
The water level is shallow in the central part of the district. Deeper water level over 10 to 20 mbgl is recorded is south western in granitic terrain around Datia and northern in the alluvial tract along the Sindh river and north east along the Pahaj river Plate (III). During May 2006, pre-monsoon the depth to water level in the district ranges between 8.34 to 27.12 mbgl .
Post-monsoon ( November 2006)
The behaviour of post monsoon water level represents the same as pre-monsoon water level Plate (IV).. During post-monsoon period of, November 2006, the water levels vary from 7.80 to 27.78 mbgl.
Decadal Average Water Level (May 1995-2006)
There are 7 no of national hydrograph monitoring wells of CGWB falling in the district,. Visualizing trend analysis of all NHMW, it is observed that, the water level trends, are almost falling in all over the district This is the average of water levels for the last 10 years. This gives a more realistic picture as the water level of any particular year depends on rainfall and draft and may vary widely.
The long-term water level trend shows declining of 0.221-0.839 and 0.379 -0.959 m/yr during pre –monsoon and post -monsoon respectively which are quite significant. The long-term water level trend shows rising of 0.054-0.251 and 0.007-0.027 m/yr during pre –monsoon and post -monsoon respectively in the command canal area in the north central part of the district.
Ground Water Quality of Datia -
The groundwater samples are being collected form each monitoring wells during the month of May every year. The quality of ground water in district is being described by the analysis of groundwater samples from 7 ground water monitoring wells. The analysis of water samples for year 2006 indicate that the pH values of all water samples varies between 7.63 to 8.10 showing alkaline nature of water in the district.
The electrical conductivity (EC) values were found in the range of 530 and 2222 μs/cm at 250C. The highest EC value exceeding BIS limit (1000 μs/cm at 250C) was
found in Datia town (2222 μs/cm at 250C). The concentration of No3 – ranges between 6-187 mg/l was reported in Datia town (187 mg/l).
The higher concentration of No3 - may be due to localized pollution. The study of analyzed data shows that this district does not have any problem of fluoride since all the wells have fluoride less than 1.5 mg/l permissible limits. No arsenic content was detected in the groundwater. Ground water quality in the district is generally good for drinking except one well of Datia town.
The chemical quality of groundwater is an important factor to be considered in evaluating its suitability for irrigation purpose. The parameters such as EC, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), percent sodium (% Na) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) are used to classify the water quality for irrigation purpose. US Salinity Laboratory suggested a diagram of classifying waters for irrigation purposes in 1954. The plot of US Salinity Laboratory diagram suggested that except are observed under C2-S1 class (medium salinity and low sodium) which means that these waters can be used for all type of crops on soils of low to high permeability and C3-S1 (high salinity and low sodium) class. How ever ground water in the district in generally safe for irrigation but proper drainage system is required where EC is more than 1500 μs/cm at 250C
How to reach Datia (Transport System in Datia)
Datia also has some famous temples. 'Peetambra Peeth' is one such temple which attracts a lot of pilgrims, apart from Hanuman garhi. 'Purana Mahal or Datia Mahal' is one good piece of architecture, visible from the railway line passing from Gwalior to Jhansi and was built to welcome King Jahangir after his coronation but the Emperor never came, fearing he would have to give good reward to king of Datia for his help in getting the Moghul throne.
Peetambra Peeth - Peetambra Peeth is the famous Shakti Peeth of the country. Sh. Golokwasi Swamiji Maharaj established "Bagla Mukhi Devi " and " Dhumawati Mai " at this place. Vankhandeshwar Temple at Peetambra Peeth is one of the Mahabharat-Kaleen temple of Lord Shiva.In the same campus a lot of temples are established. How to reach : Pitambra Peeth is located at the entrance of Datia city. Datia railway station 3 km from the Peetambra and Bus stand is located at the distance of 1 km. Auto are available from the railway station and bus stand to reach Peetambra Peeth. Jhansi(U.P.) is 30 km and Gwalior(M.P.) is 75 km from Datia and is well connected by Trains and roadways & private buses. Nearest Airport is Gwalior . Contect No : Telephone No's of Peeth are 07522-233960,234960 Where to stay : There are Hotels / Loges and Dharamshalas in the city to stay at the distance of 1-2 km .
Sonagiri - Sonagiri ( literally, the golden peak) is a place sacred to Digambar Jains. This is a place where King Nanganag Kumar achieved liber- ation from the cycles of death and life along with the fifteen million followers. There are several white Jain temples scattered around Sonagiri. This sacred place is popular among devotees & ascetic saints to practice for self discipline, austerity, and to attain Nirvana ( salvation ) . LORD CHANDRAPRABHU IDOL There are seventy seven beautiful Jain temples in hills and twenty six temples in village.The temple no. fifty seven on hill is the main temple. This temple has attra- ctive artistic spire. In this temple the principal deity is Lord Chandraprabhu, eleven feet in height. Two other beautiful idols of Lord SheetalNath & Parsvnath are installed.There is a column of dignity ( Manstambh ) 43 feet in height and an attractive model of Samavsharan. The samavsharan of Bhagwan Chandraprabhu came here for seventeen times. Nang, Anang, Chintagati, Pooranchand, Ashoksen, Shridatta and many other saints achieved salvation from here. This is the unique place known as Laghu Sammed Shikhar covering the area of 132 acres of two hills. Annual festival ( Mela ) : From Falgun Shukla 14 to Chaitra Krishna 5 Nearby City : Datia 15 kms ( By road ) 15 kms ( By train ) Jhansi 45 kms ( By road ) 48 kms ( By train ) Gwalior 65 kms ( By road ) 62 kms ( By train ) Means of approach : By Road : Sonagiri lies on Datia Gwalior road. Buses are available from Gwalior, Datia and Jhansi to reach Sonagiri. By Train : Sonagiri railway station lies on Agra Jhansi railway line . Trains are available from Gwalior, Datia and Jhansi. By Air : Nearest airport to Sonagiri is Gwalior. Where to stay : Delhiwali Dharamshala, Beespanthi Kothi, Tyagi Vrati Ashram, Terapanthi Kothi, Kund-Kund Nagar are available for stay having normal rooms, semi deluxe rooms, deluxe rooms, mess facility and all other required items like utensils, bed, tent etc.
Beer Singh Deo Mahal -
Beer Singh Deo Mahal is the seven- storeyed palace built entirely on stone by Raja Beer Singh Deo in 1614. It is the representative of one of the finest architectures of the Bundela period , the place also houses the Bundela mural paintings. The palace also has sculptures and good view from the top. It is impressive architecturally and has nice mural painted on the walls.
Unao-Balaji Sun Temple -
Unao is seventeen kilometers from Datia Headquarters. Balaji Temple is very old temple is said to date from Pre-Historic times. People from very distant places flock to the Balaji Sun Temple on pilgrimage. There is a tank in the vinicity said to contain sacred water and is the popular belief that lepers who take a bath in these waters are cured of their terrible affliction. This is also known as Balaji-Dham. Unao is connected by road only.
Beer Singh Deo Mahal -
Beer Singh Deo Mahal is the seven- storeyed palace built entirely on stone by Raja Beer Singh Deo in 1614.
Rajgarh Palace & Museum -
Rajgarh Palace is located near Peetambra-Peeth was built by King Shatrujit Bundela. Palace is made of Bundeli Archetecture. Museum is also located this place and is collection of Geological & Cultural Importance things.
Gujarra is 17 Km. from Datia and is famous for "Ashoka's Shilalekh".
This place is known as Chhoti Badoni and is located about 10 Km. from Datia City. There are Guptkalin temples of "Boddh" and "Jain" Religion and famous for Bundeli Archetecture "Fort" and "Hawelies".
Seondha is located 70 Km. from Datia and is connected road only. This Tehsil Headquarter is famous for Water fall on Sindh River, Kanhargarh Fort, and Nandnandan temple. At fifteen kilometers from Seondha there is famous temple of "Ratangarh Mata" Temple. This temple is located in dense forest.
Bhander is located 30 Km. from Datia. Bhander is recently merged as 3rd Tehsil in Datia District. Mahabharat period name of Bhander was "Bhandakpur" and famous for Son-Tallaiya, Laxman Mandir and Old Fort.
Botonical Garden -
This is located on Datia-Bhander road at 5 Km. This place is developed by Forest Department and is dense forest as well as natural place.
Pancham Kavi Ki Toriya -
This natural and beautiful place is located 4 Km from Datia and is famous for "Bhairav Temple".
Udnu Ki Toriya -
This place is famous for "Hanuman Temple" and is located 8 Km from Datia on the very high Place having about 350 steps.
In Datia City there are lot of beautiful temples. Datia is known as "Laghu Vrandaban" some of these are "Avadh Bihari Temple", "Shivgir Temple", "Vijay-Raghav Temple", "Govind Temple", and "Bihariji Temple".
The Ramsagar Reservoir is a man made water body. The origin and the year of completion of the reservoir is not known, however, the information from Irrigation Department, Datia showed that it was completed before independence i.e. 1947. The reservoir is located around 80 kms south of Gwalior and 28 kms north of Jhansi in District Datia at an altitude of 229 msl. It lies between 25o40.489 N latitude and 78o23.887 E longitude. The reservoir is surrounded by hills on the eastern and western sides, which drain their runoff in the reservoir through various nullahs prominent among these being the Pateria from eastern side, Badi nadi from southern side and Patparu from the western side. There is an earthen dam on the Northern side of reservoir. The length of the dam is 506 m and the top width is 3.75 m. The maximum height of the dam from lowest river bed level is 26.8 m. The Sindh river basin forms approximately 46 Sq. km of catchment area of the reservoir. The reservoirs command area constitutes an area of more than 1050 hectares. The water spread area fluctuates due to irregular rainfall and the extensive usage of the water. The water stored in the reservoir is being supplied for drinking to the people in the Datia city. In addition the locals use the water for irrigation and fisheries development.Various indices, their bases and trophic status of Ramsagar reservoir have been given in table 1. On the basis of the studies on the trophic status it is concluded that the Ramsagar reservoir is a mesotrophic water body with moderate quantity of nutrients. The water body can serve as a good habitat for aquatic organisms and can also be very well used for stocking of Indian major carps for their cultivation.