Geography of Bihar

Geographical Locationof Bihar Physical Features of Bihar Soil of Bihar
Climate of Bihar Natural Resources of Bihar Forests of Bihar
Fertile Land of Bihar Water Resources of Bihar Mineral Production of Bihar

 

 Location

Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country (between 83°-30' to 88°-00' longitude). It is an entirely land–locked state, although the outlet to the sea through the port of Kolkata is not far away. Bihar lies mid-way between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the west which provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate, economy and culture. It is bounded by Nepal in the north and by Jharkhand in the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganga which flows through the middle from west to east.

 Physical Features

Latitude of Bihar

   24°-20'-10" to 27°-31'-15" N

Longitude of Bihar

83°-19'-50" to 88°-17'-40" E

Rural Area of Bihar

92,257.51 sq. kms

Urban Area of Bihar

1,095.49 sq. kms

Total Area of Bihar

94,163.00 sq. kms

Height above Sea-Level  of Bihar

173 Feet

Normal Rainfall in Bihar

1,205 mm

Avg. Number of Rainy Days in Bihar

52.5 Days in a Year

 

Administrative Units

Divisions in Bihar

9

Districts in Bihar

38

Sub-Divisions in Bihar

101

CD Blocks in Bihar

534

Panchayats in Bihar

8,463

Number of Revenue Villages in Bihar

45,103

Number of Urban Agglomerations in Bihar

9

Number of Towns in Bihar

130

  - Statutory Towns in Bihar

125

  - Non-Statutory Towns in Bihar

5

Police Stations in Bihar

853

  - Civil Police Stations in Bihar

813

  - Railway Police Stations in Bihar

40

Police Districts in Bihar

43

  - Civil Police District in Bihar

39

  - Railway Police District in Bihar

4

 Key Statistics - as per 2011 Census (Provisional)

Population of Bihar

10,38,04,637

  Rate of increase in Population 25.07%

  - Male

5,41,85,347

  - Female

4,96,19,290

Population (0~6 Years Group)

18,582,229

  - In Absolute Numbers

1,85,82,229

Male

96,15,280

Female

89,66,949

  - Percentage of Total Population

17.6%

Male

%

Female

%

Literacy in Bihar

 

  - In Absolute Numbers

5,43,90,254

Male

3,27,11,975

Female

2,16,78,279

  - Percentage of Total Population

63.82%

Male

73.39%

Female

53.33%

Decadal Population Growth (2001-2011)  

 

  - Absolute

2,09,25,841

  - As Percentage

25.07%

Highest Decadal Growth at

 

Lowest Decadal Growth at

 

  - Civil Police Stations

813

  - Railway Police Stations

40

Density of Population

1,102 per sq kms

  - Highest Density

1882 per sq kms in Sheohar

  - Lowest Density

488 per sq kms in Kaimur

Sex Ratio (Females/Thousand Males)

916

  - Highest Ratio

1015 in Gopalganj

  - Lowest Ratio

879 in Bhagalpur and Munger

Highest Literacy Rate in Bihar

75.59% in Rohtas

  Lowest Literacy Rate in Bihar 52.49% in Purnia
  Highest Female Literacy Rate in Bihar 65.53% in Munger
  Lowest Female Literacy Rate in Bihar 42.73% in Saharsa
  Highest Male Literacy Rate in Bihar 85.29% in Rohtas

Lowest Male Literacy Rate in Bihar

60.99% in Katihar

Average Population of a District

27,31,701

 

Key Statistics - as per 2001 Census (Provisional)

Population of Bihar

8,28,78,796

  - Male

4,31,53,964

  - Female

3,97,24,832

Population (0~6 Years Group)

  - In Absolute Numbers

1,62,34,539

Male

83,75,532

Female

78,59,007

  - Percentage of Total Population

19.59%

Male

19.41%

Female

19.78%

Literacy in Bihar

  - In Absolute Numbers

3,16,75,607

Male

2,09,78,955

Female

1,06,96,652

  - Percentage of Total Population

47.53%

Male

60.32%

Female

33.57%

Decadal Population Growth (1991-2001)  

130

  - Absolute

1,83,48,242

  - As Percentage

28.43%

Highest Decadal Growth at

Sheohar District (36.16%)

Lowest Decadal Growth at

Nalanda District (18.64%)

  - Civil Police Stations

813

  - Railway Police Stations

40

Density of Population

880 per sq kms

  - Highest Density

Patna, 1471 per sq kms

  - Lowest Density

Kaimur, 382 per sq kms

Sex Ratio (Females/Thousand Males)

921

  - Highest Ratio

(Siwan) 1,033

  - Lowest Ratio

(Patna) 873

Highest Literacy Rate in Bihar

Patna, 63.82%

Lowest Literacy Rate in Bihar

Kishanganj, 31.02%

Average Population of a District

22,39,967

 

Soil of Bihar

Soil is one of the most important resources of a nation. It is the gift of nature of immense value. The most common use of the word soil is in the sense of a medium in which plants grow, although it has a different connotation at different time and place, and for persons engaged in different professions. Almost all the economic activities are directly or indirectly dependent on soil. Thus soil is the backbone of agricultural and industrial development. 

Soil has a number of characteristics, which may be regarded as the aggregate of the physical, chemical and biological properties. The Bihar plane consists of a thick alluvial mantle of drift origin overlying in most part. The siwalik and older tertiary rocks. The soil is mainly young loam rejuvenated every year by constant deposition of silt, clay and sand brought by different streams. This soil is deficient in phosphoric acid, nitrogen and humus, but potash and lime are usually present in sufficient quantity. 

There are three major types of soil in Bihar:

Piedmont Swamp Soil - found in northwestern part of west Champaran district.
Terai Soil – found in northern part of the state along the border of Nepal.
The Gangetic Alluvium
– the plain of Bihar is covered by gangetic alluvium (both new as well as old).

Climate of Bihar

The climate of Bihar is a part of the climatic pattern of the Indian subcontinent. It enjoys a continental monsoon type of climate owing to its great distance from the sea. 

The factors affecting the climate of Bihar are:

It extends from 22-degree north to 27-degree latitude. Hence its location is tropical to sub tropical.
The Himalayan Mountains in the north have a significant bearing on the distribution of monsoon rainfall in Bihar.
Bihar joins the Ganga delta and Assam.

Seasons of Bihar and their duration:

Cold weather season - December to February.

Hot weather season – March to May.

Southwest monsoon – June to September.

Retreating southwest monsoon – October to November.

 

Natural Resources of Bihar

Bihar lies in the tropical to sub tropical region. Rainfall here is the most significant factor in determining the nature of vegetation. Bihar has a monsoon climate with an average annual rainfall of 1200 mm.

Forests of Bihar

The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and Dun ranges in Champaran constitute another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consists of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the favoured areas. The hot and dry summer gives the deduous forests. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta (Sal), Shisham, Cedrela Toona, Khair, and Semal. This type of forests also occurs in Saharasa and Purnia districts.

Fertile Land of Bihar

The topography of Bihar can be easily described as a fertile alluvial plain occupying the Gangetic Valley. The plain extends from the foothills of the Himalayas in the north to a few miles south of the river Ganges as it flows through the State from the west to the east. Rich farmland and lush orchards extend throughout the state. Following are the major crops: paddy, wheat, lentils, sugarcane, jute (hemp, related to the marijuana plant, but a source of tough fibers and "gunny bags"). Also, cane grows wild in the marshes of West Champaran. The principal fruits are: mangoes, banana, jack fruit and litchis. This is one the very few areas outside China which produces litchi.

Water Resources of Bihar

Water like ground and mineral resources is of great significance as it provides means of drinking water for man and animals, irrigation for agriculture, industrial uses, production of hydro-electricity, transportation and recreation etc. The importance of water is so immense that the people in ancient times worshipped it.

Bihar is richly endowed with water resources, both the ground water resource and the surface water resource. Not only by rainfall but it has considerable water supply from the rivers which flow within the territory of the State. Ganga is the main river which is joined by tributaries with their sources in the Himalayas. Some of them are Saryu (Ghaghra), Gandak, Budhi Gandak, Bagmati, Kamla-Balan and Mahananda. 

There are some other rivers that start from the platue area and meet in Ganges or its associate rivers after flowing towards north. Some of them are Sone, Uttari Koyal, Punpun, Panchane and Karmnasha. 

There are several rivers in Bihar which contribute a lot to the peoples of Bihar. These rivers make the water available for irrigation purpose and also help in generating the hydro-thermal energy for the state. Apart from this they provide a medium for water transport, provide fishes for fishery industry and enrich the natural resources of state in many other ways. 

All the above rivers have their impact on the Bihar plain. State also has non-exhaustible source of ground water which is in use for drinking purposes, irrigation and industries.

Mineral Production of Bihar

Steatite - 945 Tonnes

Pyrites - 9,539 Tonnes

Quartzite - 14,865 Tonnes

Crude Mica - 53 Tonnes

Limestone - 4,78,000 Tonnes

 

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