The geographical area of the district is 305621 hectare i.e. 3019.3465 Sq Km.
The district head quarter of Banka is situated in Banka town. The district has been established on 21st, February, 1991. Earlier it was a Sub-Division of a the district Bhagalpur.
The district consists 11 blocks and two towns Banka and Amarpur.
Click on the Map of Banka to see the large View of Banka Map
The border of the district is adjacent to the state Jharkhand. Therefore the physical character ( Natural environment ) of the district resembles with that of Jharkhand. Chanan is the main river of the district.
The river Chanan is the largest river of the Hill streams in the district. It rises just in the north part of Deogher in Jharkhand state. It passes near Banka and joins the Ganges at Ghogha ( Bhagalpur District ). The Chanan river scheme irrigates a large area of land in Banka district.
North part of Banka has generally a plain surface except the southern area adjoining Santhalpargana ( Jharkhand). The land begins to rise at an easy ascent near or after of Banka, Barahat, so south of Banka hilly tracts commence. Thus the district of Banka has 60% of hilly area.
The river Belharni and Barua flows in the north-western area of the district. Chanan and Orhni flows from middle of the district. The river Cheer meets river Chanan in the north- eastern of Mandar Giri which rises in the east of Mandar.
The plains of Banka is formed from several streams of the these river. The plain area is very fertile.
These river are perennial. It almost dries in summer but are flood effect in rainy season.
Chanan and Barua rivers has been made useful by constructing embankments and channels. These channels irrigates the fertile lands as well as prevents floods also.
As a result of these channels water from rivers of the district is self sufficient in production of grain, fruits, vegetables etc.
Flora and Founa:
The district has some forested area under Banka, Bounsi Katoriya forest ranges. The wood of Banka range lie on the Hill slopes, those in the other two ranges lie in undulating land. Among the prominent variety of trees in forested areas are the Sal which is usually found associated with Abuns, Asan, Kendu and Mahua. Tasar worms are reared on Asan trees. Some other trees are Bahera, Kadam, Amaltas. Among the specials of the Acacia are Babul, Sirish, and Sain Babul. Among the fruits trees those of Mango and Jack fruits are common. Plantains, Date plants, Plums, Jamun are some of the other important fruits trees.
Monkeys are common in the district, particularly the Hanuman. So are Jackal, Dear, lion, Bear, Leopards, Elephants are some times met with. Among the latter are Barsingha and Sambhar. Wild geese, Duck, Leel, and Quail are some of the game birds inhabiting the district. Peacocks, Parrots, Hawks, and Doves are other birds found in Katoriya forest/ Chandan forest. Sparrows, Crows and Vultures are of course common.
Several kinds of fishes are found eg. Rohu, Katla, Boari, and Tengra. Bachwa, Jhinga and Pothi are other Varieties.
The Climate of this district is characterized by a hot Summer and a pleasant Winter Season. March to June comprises the summer months while the cold season lasts from November to February. Monsoon sets in sometimes in the part of June and the rains continue till September, October being a transional month.The district also received some winter rains.
The south west monsoon generally breaks in during the second half of June. The bulk of the rainfall occurs in July and August. The average annual rain fall is 1200 mm almost uniformly throughout the district.
Kark Rekha passes through North Part of the District so the temperature rises upto 450C In winter season average temperature is 150 C
Land use Pattern Agriculture:
The main occupation of the people of Banka District is agriculture. The Land in seven Blocks out of Eleven Blocks of the District is Plain and Fertile . The rest four Blocks Chandan, Katoriya and Bounsi are Hilly. Irrigation has been made available by cannels and the wells. Irrigation Facilities are available in 66072 Hec. of land out of 747801 Hec cultivable land. Paddy is far and away the most important crop of the District. It covers the largest proportion of the gross sown. Wheat is the main rubbi crop.
Sugarcane is the most important non food crop ( Cash crop ) of the district. The farmers of Amarpur, Rajoun, Dhoraiya, circle grows sugarcane in abundance. Therefore there are several mills to produce ( Gur ) Molasses from sugarcane.
Agriculture depends mainly on the availabilities of water at proper time and in proper quantity. In the past the main source of water had been rainfall. However on account of failure of monsoon at times or premature cessation of rainfall the need for Irrigation was felt. Before the abolition of Zamindari the Zamindars used to maintain ahars and pyres which severed the twin purpose of irrigation and drainage. Besides these channels there were dug wells for irrigation purposes.
After independence the government has under different five years plans drawn up and executed various schemes for irrigation. Important among the major schemes being the following
1. Chandan Reservoir Irrigation scheme.
2. Kajia Danr Irrigation Scheme.
3. Bdua Reservoir Project.
4. Chandan, Belasi Irrigation Scheme - Banka
5. Orhni Reservoir Irrigation Project- Banka Fullidumer
6. Laxmipur Reservoir Irrigation Project - Bounsi
Fish rearing has also been provided in these reservoir along with irrigation schemes.
Irrigation facilities has been made available from these reservoir by constructing channels till far north area of Rajoun Circle also.
The term livestock includes cattle ( Cows, Bulls, and Bullocks) Buffaloes, Sheep and Pigs. The cattle in the district are generally not of very good quality. The government has taken up various measures to improve the breed of the cattle. Artificial insemination centers have also been open at various centers in the district. A number of Vetanary Hospitals and Dispensaries including the District Hospital are functioning at various places in the district for general welfare of the animals. There has been a marked progress in vateneary matters in the district in recent past. As a results of these efforts the district is self sufficient in milk production. No milk is imported from out side the district.
A number of reservoir, tanks are used for pisiculture in the district. The State government has also taken up a few scheme of development of fisheries. These efforts couldn't fulfill the demand. The chief fish market and trade center is Amarpur. Traders buy fishes from different center out side the district.
Mines and Minerals:-
1. Sand:- Chandan and Orhni rivers bring a large deposit of sand with its water in rainy reasons the district earns a large amount by auctioning these Ghats of sand.
2. China Clay:- Among the minerals in the district deposits of China Clay, Fire Clay and Mica have been exploited . China Clay is found in Samukhiya near Banka and Satletwa in Katoriya circle China Clay of good quality is found in Patherghatta hill in village Madhorampur. The mining is worked by Bhagalpur Potteries Ltd. Resultantally a ceramic state has been established near Samukhiya. Fulhara in Katoriya circle has deposit of Mica also.
3. Granite:- Deposit of Granite and Galena are also believed to occur in certain belts of Katoriya Block near Tonapathar.
4. Industrialization:- The district Banka is Totally Backward in industrialization. Only Gur Producing Mills in Amarpur circle area based on sugarcane.
A traditional Tasar cloth weaving is still doing well at village Ktoriya in Amarpur Block areas. The district administration has been active to promote this village silk weaving.
There are almost thousand ( 1000) weavers families in the village Biraidih Churaili, Masuriya, Dumra, Jagay of Banka Urban areas. The family livelihood are mainly dependent on Handloom.
Stone Crusher Industries :- This cheap crusher industry are based at Bounsi.
Road ways :-
Roads:- The Roads in the district consist of P.W.D. District Board roads, Municipal roads and Village roads,
Following are Black topped roads maintained by P.W.D. These are all state High ways.
1. Banka-Katoria - 32 KM
2. Banka -Amarpur- 19 KM
3. Bhagalpur -Bounsi 30 KM
4. Banka - Bounsi 18 KM
5. Banka Shambhuganj 46 KM
6. Banka- Belhar 38 KM
7. Banka - Rajoun 25 KM
8. Banka - Chandan 48 KM
9. Banka - Dhoraiya 48 KM
10. Banka - Barahat 10 KM
11. Banka - Fullidumer 27 KM
Rural area of the district is also connected with village roads from District H.Q.
Railways:- Railways have provided 44 Km from Bhagalpur to Mandar Hill. It connects Rajoun, Barahat, and Bounsi Blocks with Bhagalpur. The Broadguage is serving since British Period.
One Train Banka Danapur Intercity is running from Banka to Danapur. Land is being provided to Rail department by District Administration in other sanctioned Rail work.
Railways has sanctioned the following Projects
1. Mandar Hill - Rampur Hat
2. Sultanganj - Deoghar Via Banka
Besides these a Rail Bus service has been provided to reach the passengers from Banka to Jasidih. A Booking office and a Computerised Reservation Office is also operational in the Town Banka.
Market:- Wholesale traders are a little in the District. The facilities of retail trade in is available at Banka, Amarpur, Bounsi, Sahebgunj ( Belhar ) and Katoriya. The retailers of Banka district depend only on Bhagalpur market which is about 50 Kfrom Banka town. At all these places retails shops of almost all the commodities are found.
Fuel and Ignition:- In the rural areas firewood and coal are used to prepare food. But in urban areas LPG dealers are available but low income group uses wood and coal in urban areas also. Only rich and medium income group uses LPG Stoves.
Electricity:- The district receives most of its power supply from the state electricity board. Both the towns of Banka district have electricity in rural areas however the pace of electrification is comparatively slower. There is a Sub Power Grid at Banka town.
Communication:- All the rural and urban areas of the district has been provided with BSNL Telephone services several telephone booths are available in urban areas. Facilities of Fax are also in services in urban areas. Private Telephone Service Providers are also available.
Administration:- BANKA a subdivision of district Bhagalpur was established as district on 21st February 1991. The district developed rapidly after becoming a district. Collectorate started in its new building in the year 2000. The Subdivision Hospital has been upgraded as a district Hospital.
Festivals and fairs are being held by different communities in the district from time to time. This tradition is also in vogue now
The recognition of the district is Mandar Hill ( Mandar Parwat ) situated at Bounsi Block at about 18 Km from the District Head quarter raising its head since the epic period.
The glorious fair Bounsi mela is held every year in the month of January. The fair starts from 14th January ( Makar Sankranti day ) every year and continues for a month. The Mandar Hill is related with a story of Skand Puran of epic period.
Descriptions of Places of religious Historical and archeological importance in village and places of Tourist interest in the town and village of District Banka
Block Amarpur:- The village amarpur is the headquarter of the development block bearing the same name and is situated about 19 Kms. away from Banka on Banka Shambhuganj Road. Amarpur is at a distance of 26 Kms from Bhagalpur on Bhagalpur Kajraili Road. According to local tradition, the village was formed by Shah Umar Vajir of Shah Suja, the Governor of Bihar. He rehabilitated the persons who left village Patwai when is was croded by the river Chandan.
Village Asauta:- The village is said to have been established by Maharani Chandarjoti after she left Kharagpur. The Maharani built a Garh ( fort) and a tank at Asauta. She also built a mosque for her son. The ruins of the Garh and mosque still exist.
Village Banhara:- The village is situated just west of Amarpur. According to local tradition, Shah Suja, who was the governor of Bengal and Bihar during the period of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan, had his headquarter in the village.
Village Dumrama:- The village is located at a distance of a 3 Kms from the block Headquarter at Amarpur, on the road to Bhagalpur. Remains of Stupas are believed to indicate the existence of Budhist Monasteries here in the remote past, According to the local tradition, the village was the seat of Khaetauri chiefs, the last of whom was king Debai who had built fort in the villages surrounded by moats.
Jesth Gour Math:- The place is situated on the left bank of the river Chandan, 2 kms east of Amarpur – Banka Road it is considered to be a place of great religious importance for the Hindus. The Jesth Gour Sthan is a Shivatemple at the foot of a hillock on the western bank of river Chandan. On the top of the hillock which is known as Jesth Gour Pahar, there is a temple of Kali and also an ancient well. A large fair is held around the temple on the occasion of Shivratri.
Block Bausi:- It is about 5 Kms north of Bausi. The hill is about 700 Ft high. This hill is extremely sacred in the Hindu Mythology. The Skand Puran records the history of the famous Amrit Manthan ( the churning of the ocean ). Due to this mythical association, the hill has assumed considerable religious significance and had been a place of pilgrimage up till now.
Papharni :- At the foot of the hill there is a tank called Papharni. From the vicinity of the tank three routes lead to the top of the hill. At the foot of the hill there are also a number of dilapidated, temples.
In the middle of Papharni Tank, Mahavishnu, Mahalaxmi marvelous temple has been built. Several ruins of temples are present here. On the summit of the hill, two Jain Temples are situated. Large number of Jain Pilgrims come here to worship Lord Basupujya. It is believed that this place is Nirvan Bhumi of Basupujya.
On the hill there many kunds ( Small Tank ). The depth of the kund Akash Ganga and Sankh Kund in fine. Sita Kund among these is famous. Sinta Kund has been named after goddess Sita as she is believed to have taken bath here .
Lakshdeepa Temple:- The ruins of the temple is even present in the foot of the hill. In the past 1 lakh deep ( Candle ) was used to light here. One candle ( Deep ) was brought from every house. The area was well Known as Balisha at that time.
According to Balisha Purans this was "Sidh Peeth of Lord Shiva". On the Top to the hill is a large temple. In this temple Lord Ram had himself established Lord Madhusudan.
The present large temple was constructed during Jahangir Period. A temple called Nath Temple is in the foot which guides to understands Nath Communitity.
There is also a Vidyapeeth where people from distant places come to study. A large fair is held on 14th January every year for 10 days at Bausi on the eve of Makar Sankranti.
Village Chutiya:- The village is about 8 Kms away from the headquarters at Sambhuganj. There is a hill in the village containing a temple of Chuteshwar Nath. There is a large cave in the hill. Traces of marks left by chariot wheels of stones are said to indicate that a big battle was fought here in the remote past.
Village Gouripur:- This is another village about 3 kms away from village Asauta in Sambhuganj Block. A Shiv temple constructed by Maharani Chandarjoti of Kharakpur lies in this village.
Block Dhuraiya:- The village is located at a distance of about 10 kms from Tekari Railway Station in Dhuraiya Block. It is noted for its Shiv Temple. A large fair is held on the occasion of Shivratri.
Village Indrabaran:- The village is situated at distance of Block headquarters at Katoriaya on Katoriya- Deoghar Road. It has rest houses (Dharmshalas) for pilgrims who travel on foot in large number from Sultangunj to Deoghar.
Village Lachhmipur:- The village is situated about 29 kms South- East of Block headquaters at Katoria on the river Chandan. It is noted as the erstwhile seat of the Rajas Lachhimipur, ruins of whose forts still exist.
Village Rupsa:- It is an ancient village in Rajoun block, situated about 6 kms west of Bhagalpur –Dumka Road on the eastern bank of the river Chandan. the village has ancient temples of goddesses Kali and Durga, where large fairs are held on the occasion of Kali Puja and Durga Puja.
Shravani Mela:- In the month of Shravan ( July – Aug ) Pilgrims ( Kamaria ) travel from Sultanganj to Deoghar on foot carrying Ganga Jal (water from the Ganga river) to offer on Lord Shiva. The Distance is 105 Kms of which 64 Kms lie under Banka District of three Blocks, Belhar, Katoria and Chandan. The Scene on the road is like a fair for one month..
The whole administration becomes busy for the welfare of Kamaria's safety, ( Medical aid ) Traffic Police water supply sanitary and electricity etc. Government has provided Dharmshalas ( Rest Houses ) for Kamarias at different places during the whole Shravan month. Lakhs of pilgrims ( Kamarias ) go on foot by this way. Several non government help groups become active in the shravani mela to help the devotees.